Today we will look at the form प्रपितामहः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.24.36.
इति तस्यां स आधाय गर्भं सूर्यो दिवं गतः । सद्यः कुमारः सञ्जज्ञे द्वितीय इव भास्करः ।। ९-२४-३५ ।।
तं सात्यजन्नदीतोये कृच्छ्राल्लोकस्य बिभ्यती । प्रपितामहस्तामुवाह पाण्डुर्वै सत्यविक्रमः ।। ९-२४-३६ ।।
No commentary on these verses.
Gita Press translation – So saying, the sun-god deposited his seed in her womb and returned to heaven. That very moment a male child – who was another sun as it were, was born of her without any travail. (35) Afraid of the world (however), she painfully consigned the child to the stream of a river. (Later on) your great grandfather, Pāṇḍu, of genuine valor duly married her (36).
(1) प्रगत: पितामह: = प्रपितामह: – advanced (‘gone ahead’) grandfather = great grandfather
(2) प्र + पितामह सुँ । By सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया – Terms like ‘प्र’ (from the प्रादि-गण:) when denoting a sense like ‘गत’ (‘gone’/’advanced’) invariably compound with a syntactically related पदम् ending in the nominative case and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘प्र’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् ‘प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया’ (which prescribes the compounding) the term प्रादय: ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘प्र’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम् – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.
(4) प्र + पितामह । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
= प्रपितामह ।
As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः – The gender of a तत्पुरुष: compound as well as a द्वन्द्व: compound is the same as the gender of the latter member of the compound. For a प्रादि-समास: (which belongs to the तत्पुरुष: class of compounds) though, as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः) द्विगुप्राप्तापन्नालम्पूर्वगतिसमासेषु प्रतिषेधो वाच्यः – The सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः does not apply to the following compounds which instead take their gender to match the gender of the विशेष्यम् (the term being qualified by the compound) –
i) a द्विगु-समास: (composed तद्धितार्थे विषये – in the context where the sense of a तद्धित: affix is to be expressed)
ii) a तत्पुरुष-समास: compound which has either ‘प्राप्त’, ‘आपन्न’ or ‘अलम्’ as its prior member
iii) a प्रादि-समास: composed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
Note: गतिसमासपदं गते: समासो येनेति बहुव्रीहिणा ‘कुगतिप्रादयः’ इति सूत्रपरम्। तच्चान्यत्र फलाभावात् प्रादिपरमेव। The mention of ‘गतिसमास’ in the above वार्तिकम् refers to those compounds constructed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः (which prescribes गति-समासा:)। And since the वार्तिकम् is of no use in the case of those compounds which have ‘कु’ or a ‘गति’ term as the prior member, we have to conclude that the mention of ‘गतिसमास’ in the above वार्तिकम् refers to प्रादि-समास: only.
But in the present example this वार्तिकम् is not necessary because the compound ‘प्रपितामह’ is itself a noun. It is not qualifying any other noun. So the gender is the same as the gender of its latter member (‘पितामह’) which is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।
The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।
(5) प्रपितामह + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।
1. Where has the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया (used in step 2) been used in verses 15-19 of Chapter Four of the गीता?
2. Commenting on the सौनाग-वार्तिकानि the तत्त्वबोधिनी commentary says – अव्यवस्थया समासप्रसक्तौ व्यवस्थार्थं वचनानि। Please explain.
3. Where has the कृत् affix ‘ट’ been used in the verses?
4. In which word in the verses does the सूत्रम् 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च find application?
5. Can you spot a गति-समास: in the verses?
6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The sage Vyāsa was the great grandson of the sage Vasiṣṭha.”
1. From which verbal root is the form सञ्जज्ञे derived?
2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the सम्प्रसारणम् in the form उवाह?