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नमस्कृत्य ind

Today we will look at the form नमस्कृत्य  ind from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.6.2.

मैत्रेय उवाच
अथ देवगणाः सर्वे रुद्रानीकैः पराजिताः । शूलपट्टिशनिस्त्रिंशगदापरिघमुद्गरैः ।। ४-६-१ ।।
सञ्छिन्नभिन्नसर्वाङ्गाः सर्त्विक्सभ्या भयाकुलाः । स्वयम्भुवे नमस्कृत्य कार्त्स्न्येनैतन्न्यवेदयन् ।। ४-६-२ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अथ देवगणाः स्वयंभुवे न्यवेदयन्निति द्वितीयेनान्वयः ।। १ ।। शूलादिभिः संछिन्नानि त्रुटितानि भिन्नानि विदीर्णान्यङ्गानि येषाम् । सह ऋत्विग्भिः सभ्यैश्च वर्तमानाः ।। २ ।।

Gita Press translation – Maitreya went on: Worsted by the forces of Rudra and stricken with fear, and having all their limbs mangled and broken by (the blows of) their tridents, Paṭṭiśas (a kind of spear), swords, maces, iron clubs and mallets, the hosts of divinities along with the priests officiating and assisting at the sacrifice (approached and) bowed to Brahmā (the self-born) and narrated the story to him in all details (1-2).

(1) नम: कृत्वा = नमस्कृत्य – having saluted.

नमस्कृत्य is derived from the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) preceded by the अव्ययम् ‘नमस्’। ‘नमस्’ gets the designation गति: here as per 1-4-74 साक्षात्प्रभृतीनि च – The designation ‘गति’ is optionally assigned to the terms ‘साक्षात्’ etc when used in conjunction with the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०).

Note: As per the commentators, the साक्षात्प्रभृति-गण: is a आकृति-गण: – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations.
Note: च्व्यर्थवृत्तित्वं प्रायिकम् – the requirement that – the (optional) designation ‘गति’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 1-4-74 साक्षात्प्रभृतीनि च only applies when the terms ‘साक्षात्’ etc are used in the same sense as that of the affix ‘च्वि’ – is प्रायिकम् meaning that it usually applies but is not universal. For example in नमस्कृत्य – here ‘नमस्’ (which is listed in the साक्षात्प्रभृति-गण:) gets the (optional) designation ‘गति’ even though it does not convey the same sense as that of the affix ‘च्वि’।

Note: Besides accent considerations, the purpose of assigning the designation ‘गति’ is to facilitate compound formation prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः which in turn allows for the substitution ‘ल्यप्‌’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ (in step 5.)

(2) कृ + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. In the present example the later action (having the same agent – ‘hosts of divinities’) is न्यवेदयन् (‘narrated.’)

(3) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –

नमस् + कृ क्त्वा । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।

(4) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘नमस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘नमस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘नमस् + कृ क्त्वा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

(5) नमस् + कृ ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6).

Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114.)

(6) नमस् + कृ य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(7) नमस् + कृ तुँक् य । By 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् – When followed by a कृत् affix which is a पित् (has the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्), a short vowel takes the augment ‘तुँक्’। As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the augment ‘तुँक्’ joins after the short vowel ‘ऋ’।

(8) नमस् + कृ त् य । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) नमः + कृत्य । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

(10) नमस्कृत्य । By 8-3-40 नमस्पुरसोर्गत्योः – A विसर्ग: belonging to the term ‘नमस्’/’पुरस्’ is substituted by the letter ‘स्’ provided ‘नमस्’/’पुरस्’ has the designation ‘गति’ and is followed by a letter of the कवर्ग: (‘क्’, ‘ख्’, ‘ग्’, ‘घ्’, ‘ङ्’) or पवर्ग: (‘प्’, ‘फ्’, ‘ब्’, ‘भ्’, ‘म्’)।

‘नमस्कृत्य’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः with the help of 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ। This allows 2-4-82 to apply below.

(11) नमस्कृत्य + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(12) नमस्कृत्य । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.

Questions:

1. Why is the form नमस्कृत्वा used in the following verse of the गीता a आर्षप्रयोगः (irregular grammatical usage)?
एतच्छ्रुत्वा वचनं केशवस्य कृताञ्जलिर्वेपमानः किरीटी ।
नमस्कृत्वा भूय एवाह कृष्णं सगद्गदं भीतभीतः प्रणम्य ॥ ११-३५॥

2. Can you spot a तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

3. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया) प्रकृत्यादिभ्य उपसङ्ख्यानम् been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘न्’ in the forms ‘छिन्न’ and ‘भिन्न’ (used as part of the compound सञ्छिन्नभिन्नसर्वाङ्गाः in the verses)?

5. From which verbal root is the word विदीर्णानि (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विदीर्ण’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) – used in the commentary – derived?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having bowed to Śrī Rāma, Śrī Hanumān narrated to Him all that happened in Laṅkā.” Use the past participle ‘वृत्त’ for ‘happened.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-17 जसः शी been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘णिच्’ in the verses?

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