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पवनाग्निसमागमः mNs

Today we will look at the form पवनाग्निसमागमः  mNs from रघुवंशम् verse 8-4.

स बभूव दुरासदः परैर्गुरुणाऽथर्वविदा कृतक्रियः ।
पवनाग्निसमागमो ह्ययं सहितं ब्रह्म यदस्त्रतेजसा ॥ ८-४ ॥

मल्लिनाथ-टीका
इति अथर्वविदाऽथर्ववेदाभिज्ञेन गुरुणा वसिष्ठेन कृतक्रियः । अथर्वोक्तविधिना कृताभिषेकसंस्कार इत्यर्थ: । सोऽजः परैः शत्रुभिर्दुरासदो दुर्धर्षो बभूव । तथा हि – अस्त्रतेजसा क्षत्रतेजसा सहितं युक्तं यद्ब्रह्म ब्रह्मतेजोऽयं पवनाग्निसमागमो हि तत्कल्प इत्यर्थः । ‘पवनाग्नि’ इत्यत्र पूर्वनिपातशास्त्रस्यानित्यत्वात् ‘2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि’ इति नाग्निशब्दस्य पूर्वनिपातः । तथा च काशिकायाम् – ‘अयमेकस्तु लक्षणहेत्वोरिति निर्देशः पूर्वनिपातव्यभिचारचिह्नम्’ इति । क्षात्रेणैवायं दुर्धर्षः किमयं पुनर्वसिष्ठमन्त्रप्रभावे सतीत्यर्थः । अत्र मनुः – ‘नाक्षत्रं ब्रह्म भवति क्षत्रं नाब्रह्म वर्धते । ब्रह्म क्षत्रं च संपृक्तमिह चामुत्र च वर्धते ।।’ इति ।। ४ ।।

Translation – Thus when his preceptor, who was deep-learned in Atharva texts, had performed the rites for his installation, he became irresistible to his foes: for like Wind and Fire uniting are sacred lore joined to the glory of weapons (4).

(1) पवनश्चाग्निश्च = पवनाग्नी – Wind and Fire

(2) पवन सुँ + अग्नि सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) पवन सुँ + अग्नि सुँ । ‘अग्नि’ has the designation ‘घि’ (as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि) while ‘पवन’ does not. Hence ‘अग्नि सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the designation ‘घि’ is placed in the prior position.
Also ‘पवन’ has three syllables while ‘अग्नि’ has two syllables. Therefore ‘अग्नि सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.

(4) The placement of ‘पवन सुँ’ in the prior position is justified using the ज्ञापकम् contained in the सूत्रम् 3-2-126 लक्षणहेत्वोः क्रियायाः। ‘लक्षण’ has three syllables while ‘हेतु’ has two syllables. Also, ‘हेतु’ has the designation ‘घि’ (as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि) while ‘लक्षण’ does not. Therefore as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ as well as 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि, ‘हेतु’ should have been placed in the prior position (in the compound लक्षणहेत्वोः)। But पाणिनि: has placed ‘लक्षण’ in the prior position. This gives us a hint that we may occasionally find violations of the rules which prescribe prior placement in a compound.

Note: ‘पवन सुँ + अग्नि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(5) पवन + अग्नि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(6) पवनाग्नि । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

Now we form the षष्ठी-समास: – पवनाग्न्योः समागम: = पवनाग्निसमागम: ।

(6) पवनाग्नि ओस् + समागम सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(7) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘पवनाग्नि ओस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘पवनाग्नि ओस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पवनाग्नि ओस् + समागम सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(8) पवनाग्नि + समागम । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= पवनाग्निसमागम ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पवनाग्निसमागम’ is masculine since the latter member ‘समागम’ of the compound is masculine. The compound declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(9) पवनाग्निसमागम + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) पवनाग्निसमागम + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(11) पवनाग्निसमागम: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. What type of compound is कृतक्रियः used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. षष्ठीतत्पुरुष:
iii. कर्मधारय:
iv. बहुव्रीहि:

2. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the form दुरासदः used in the verse?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने been used in the verse?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘क्विँप्’ in the verse?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a seventh case affix in the words वसिष्ठमन्त्रप्रभावे and सति in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should avoid onion and garlic.” Construct a द्वन्द्व: compound for ‘onion and garlic’ = पलाण्डुं च लशुनं च। Use the verbal root √वृज् (वृजीँ वर्जने १०. ३४४) for ‘to avoid.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘वुक्’ in the form बभूव?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे been used in the commentary?


1 Comment

  1. 1. What type of compound is कृतक्रियः used in the verses?
    i. द्वन्द्व:
    ii. षष्ठीतत्पुरुष:
    iii. कर्मधारय:
    iv. बहुव्रीहि:
    Answer: The compound कृतक्रियः is a बहुव्रीहि:

    कृताः क्रिया यस्य सः = कृतक्रियः – The one whose (coronation) rites were done

    कृता जस् + क्रिया जस् । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)
    By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘कृता जस्’ as well as ‘क्रिया जस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. Hence 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.
    As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ, the adjective ‘कृता जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound.
    Note: ‘कृता जस् + क्रिया जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = कृता + क्रिया । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = कृतक्रिया । By 6-3-34 स्त्रियाः पुंवद्भाषितपुंस्कादनूङ् समानाधिकरणे स्त्रियामपूरणीप्रियादिषु।
    Note: Since ‘क्रिया’ has the designation उपसर्जनम् here, the सूत्रम् 1-2-48 गोस्त्रियोरुपसर्जनस्य applies in the next step.
    = कृतक्रिय । By 1-2-48 गोस्त्रियोरुपसर्जनस्य।

    The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example ‘सः (अजः)’ is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कृतक्रिय’। It declines like राम-शब्द:। प्रथमा-एकवचनम् is कृतक्रियः।

    2. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the form दुरासदः used in the verse?
    Answer: The कृत् affix ‘खल्’ is used to derive the form दुरासदः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ दुरासद’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)।

    दु:खेनासद्यते = दुरासदः – who is difficult to attack

    The form ‘दुरासद’ is derived from the verbal root √सद् (षद्ऌँ विशरणगत्यवसादनेषु १. ९९०, ६. १६३) as follows –
    दुर्/दुस् आङ् सद् + खल् । By 3-3-126 ईषद्‌दु:सुषु कृच्छ्राकृच्छ्रार्थेषु खल् – The affix खल् is used following a verbal root when in composition with either ‘ईषत्’ or ‘दुर्’/’दुस्’ or ‘सु’ used in the sense of ‘difficulty’ or ‘ease.’
    Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-3-126 ईषद्‌दु:सुषु कृच्छ्राकृच्छ्रार्थेषु खल्, the term ईषद्‌दु:सुषु ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence ‘दुर्/दुस्’ gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌।
    Note: The affix ‘खल्’ may also be used when the verbal root is preceded by a उपसर्गः। This can be inferred from the सूत्रम् 7-1-67 उपसर्गात्‌ खल्घञोः as well as 7-1-68 न सुदुर्भ्यां केवलाभ्याम्। The fact that उपसर्गात्‌ (when following a उपसर्गः) is mentioned in the सूत्रम् 7-1-67, and that सुदुर्भ्यां केवलाभ्याम् (when preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘सु’ and/or ‘दुर्’, but no other) is mentioned in the सूत्रम् 7-1-68, obviously implies that there is a possibility of a उपसर्गः preceding a verbal root when followed by the affix ‘खल्’ (or ‘घञ्’)।
    = दुर्/दुस् आ सद् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = दुर्/दुस् आ सद ।
    Now we form the compound between ‘दुर्/दुस्’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘आसद’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्। Note: The उपपदम् ‘दुर्/दुस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् as per the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् (which prescribes the compounding) the term उपपदम् ends in the nominative case. And hence ‘दुर्/दुस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌।
    = दुर्/दुरुँ आसद । By 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः।
    = दुर् + आसद । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = दुरासद ।
    ‘दुरासद’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This is an adjective. It is qualifying ‘सः (अजः)’ here. Hence it is masculine in gender. It declines like ‘राम’-शब्दः। प्रथमा-एकवचनम् is दुरासदः।

    3. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने been used in the verse?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने has been used in the verses to assign a third case affix to the प्रातिपदिकम् ’अस्त्रतेजस्’ to give the form अस्त्रतेजसा since it is co-occurring with सहितम्।

    As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with सह or a synonym of सह, provided the प्रातिपदिकम् does not denote the primary (agent.)

    4. Can you spot the affix ‘क्विँप्’ in the verse?
    Answer: The affix ‘क्विँप्’ occurs in the form अथर्वविदा (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अथर्वविद्’, पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-एकवचनम्)|

    अथर्वं वेत्ति = अथर्ववित् – one who knows the Atharva texts

    ‘विद्’ is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √विद् (विदँ ज्ञाने २. ५९). The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अथर्वविद्’ is derived as follows:

    अथर्व + ङस् + विद् + क्विँप् । By 3-2-76 क्विप् च – (In addition to the affixes mentioned in the सूत्रम् 3-2-74) the affix ‘क्विँप्’ may also be used (following any verbal root with or without the presence of a उपपदम्)।
    Note: In the present example we have used the general सूत्रम् 3-2-76 क्विप् च instead of the specific सूत्रम् 3-2-61 सत्सूद्विषद्रुहदुहयुजविदभिदच्छिदजिनीराजामुपसर्गेऽपि क्विप्‌। All the forms that are derived by using 3-2-61 may also be derived by the general rule 3-2-76. The सूत्रम् 3-2-61 is simply an elaboration of the general rule 3-2-76 क्विप् च।
    Note: The term सुपि (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: into the सूत्रम् 3-2-76 क्विप् च from the सूत्रम् 3-2-4 सुपि स्थः) ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence ‘अथर्व + ङस्’ gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌।
    Note: The affix ‘ङस्’ is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति।
    = अथर्व + ङस् + विद् + व् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = अथर्व + ङस् + विद् । By 6-1-67 वेरपृक्तस्य, 1-2-41 अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः।
    Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च stops 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च।
    We form a compound between ‘अथर्व + ङस्’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘विद्’ by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्। In the compound, ‘अथर्व + ङस्’ is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌। Note: Here ’अथर्व + ङस्’ is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् (which prescribes the compounding) the term उपपदम् ends in the nominative case.
    ‘अथर्व + ङस् + विद्’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = अथर्व + विद् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = अथर्वविद्।

    5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a seventh case affix in the words वसिष्ठमन्त्रप्रभावे and सति in the commentary?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ justifies the use of a seventh case affix in the words वसिष्ठमन्त्रप्रभावे (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’वसिष्ठमन्त्रप्रभाव’, सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) as well as the corresponding participle सति (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सत्’, पुंलिङ्गे सप्तमी-एकवचनम्)।

    As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ – A seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes the one (agent/object) whose action (the timing of which is known) gives an indication of (the timing of) another action.
    Note: In the present example, the action of ‘being’ (expressed by सति) performed by the agent ’वसिष्ठमन्त्रप्रभाव’ (expressed by वसिष्ठमन्त्रप्रभावे) gives an indication of the timing of another action which is that of ‘becoming difficult to oversome’ – expressed by ‘दुर्धर्षः (बभूव)’। Hence as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌, ’वसिष्ठमन्त्रप्रभाव’ – which denotes the agent of the indicating action of ‘being’ – take a seventh case affix.

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “One should avoid onion and garlic.” Construct a द्वन्द्व: compound for ‘onion and garlic’ = पलाण्डुं च लशुनं च। Use the verbal root √वृज् (वृजीँ वर्जने १०. ३४४) for ‘to avoid.’
    Answer: पलाण्डुलशुने वर्जयेत् ।

    Easy questions:
    1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘वुक्’ in the form बभूव?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-88 भुवो वुग्लुङ्लिटोः prescribes the augment ‘वुक्’ in the form बभूव – derived from the verbal root √भू (भू सत्तायाम् १. १).

    Please see the answer to question 3 in the following comment for the derivation of the form बभूव – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/01/25/मेनिरे-3ap-लिँट्/#comment-3158

    2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे been used in the commentary?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे has been used in the commentary in the form वर्धते derived from the verbal root √वृध् (वृधुँ वृद्धौ १. ८६३).

    As per the सूत्रम् 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे – The टि-भागः of a आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययः which substitutes a टित्-लकारः (a लकार: which has the letter ‘ट्’ as a इत्), gets the letter ‘ए’ as the replacement.

    Please see the answer to easy question 1 in the following comment for the derivation of the form वर्धते – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/03/11/आहारः-mns/#comment-18920

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