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नाम्ना nIs

Today we will look at the form नाम्ना nIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.3.24.

नरदेवत्वमापन्नः सुरकार्यचिकीर्षया । समुद्रनिग्रहादीनि चक्रे वीर्याण्यतः परम् ।। १-३-२२ ।।
एकोनविंशे विंशतिमे वृष्णिषु प्राप्य जन्मनी । रामकृष्णाविति भुवो भगवानहरद्भरम् ।। १-३-२३ ।।
ततः कलौ सम्प्रवृत्ते सम्मोहाय सुरद्विषाम् । बुद्धो नाम्नाजनसुतः कीकटेषु भविष्यति ।। १-३-२४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
रामावतारमाह – नरेति । नरदेवत्वं राघवरूपेण प्राप्तः सन् । अतः परमष्टादशे ।। २२ ।। रामकृष्णावतारमाह – एकोनेति विंशतितम इति वक्तव्ये तकारलोपश्छन्दोनुरोधेन । रामकृष्णावित्येवंनामनी जन्मनी प्राप्य ।। २३ ।। बुद्धावतारमाह – तत इति । अजनस्य सुतः । ‘जिनसुत’ इति पाठे जिनोऽपि स एव । कीकटेषु मध्ये गयाप्रदेशे ।। २४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Then again (in the eighteenth descent) He assumed the form of a ruler of men (Śrī Rāma) with a view to accomplishing the purpose of the gods and performed heroic feats like bridging the ocean and so on (22). In the nineteenth and the twentieth the Lord was born among the Vṛṣṇis as Balarāma and Śrī Kṛṣṇa and relieved the earth of its burden (23). When Kali sets in, He will be born in Magadha (North Bihar) as Buddha, son of Ajana, with a view to deluding the enemies of gods (24).

नाम्ना is तृतीया-एकवचनम् of the नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘नामन्’।

(1) नामन् + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया) प्रकृत्यादिभ्य उपसङ्ख्यानम् – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following the प्रातिपदिकानि (nominal stems) ‘प्रकृति’ etc. The list ‘प्रकृति’ etc is a आकृति-गण: – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. तेन ‘नाम्ना सुतीक्ष्णश्चरितेन दान्त:’ इत्यादि सिद्धम्। This explains usages such as ‘नाम्ना सुतीक्ष्ण: Sutīkṣṇa by name’ and ‘चरितेन दान्त: naturally restrained.’

(2) नामन् + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(3) नाम् न् + आ = नाम्ना । By 6-4-134 अल्लोपोऽनः – There is an elision of the letter ‘अ’ of ‘अन्’ when
i) the ‘अन्’ belongs to a अङ्गम् and
ii) the ‘अन्’ is (immediately) followed by a स्वादि-प्रत्यय: which is not सर्वनामस्थानम् and which either begins with the letter ‘य्’ or a vowel (अच्)।

Questions:

1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया) प्रकृत्यादिभ्य उपसङ्ख्यानम् been used in verses 25-30 of Chapter Six of the गीता?

2. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चिकीर्षा’ (used a part of the compound सुरकार्यचिकीर्षया) derived?

3. Can you spot the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अवतार’ (used as part of the compound रामावतारम् in the commentary)?

5. How would use say this in Sanskrit?
“My name is Satish.” Paraphrase to “I am Satish by name.”

6. How would use say this in Sanskrit?
“People living in India are vegetarian for the most part.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘स्य’ in भविष्यति?

2. Is there an alternate form for जन्मनी (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जन्मन्’, द्वितीया-द्विवचनम्)?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया) प्रकृत्यादिभ्य उपसङ्ख्यानम् been used in verses 25-30 of Chapter Six of the गीता?
    Answer: The वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-18 कर्तृकरणयोस्तृतीया) प्रकृत्यादिभ्य उपसङ्ख्यानम् has been used in the form सुखेन in verse 28 of Chapter Six of the गीता –
    युञ्जन्नेवं सदात्मानं योगी विगतकल्मषः |
    सुखेन ब्रह्मसंस्पर्शमत्यन्तं सुखमश्नुते || 6-28||

    2. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चिकीर्षा’ (used a part of the compound सुरकार्यचिकीर्षया) derived?
    Answer: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चिकीर्षा’ is derived from the desiderative form of the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०)

    Please see the answer to advanced question 1 for derivation of the सन्नन्त-धातुः ‘चिकीर्ष’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/07/09/तितरिषन्ति-3ap-लँट्/#comment-3978

    The feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चिकीर्षा’ is derived as follows –
    चिकीर्ष + अ । By 3-3-102 अ प्रत्ययात्‌। Note: The affix ‘अ’ has the आर्धधातक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः। This allows 6-4-48 to apply in the next step.
    = चिकीर्ष् + अ । By 6-4-48 अतो लोपः।
    = चिकीर्ष । Note: Since the affix ‘अ’ has the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्, ‘चिकीर्ष’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।
    = चिकीर्ष + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌।
    = चिकीर्ष + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = चिकीर्षा । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।

    3. Can you spot the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) in the verses?
    Answer: The substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) is used in the form प्राप्य – derived from the verbal root √आप् (आपॢँ व्याप्तौ ५. १६) – preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘प्र’।

    आप् + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले।
    Note: Here the common agent of the actions प्राप्य (attaining) and अहरद् (relieved) is भगवान् (the Lord.) The earlier of the two actions is the action of attaining which is denoted by ‘प्र + आप्’ and hence takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’/’ल्यप्’।
    = प्र आप् + क्त्वा । ‘आप् + क्त्वा’ is compounded with ‘प्र’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    = प्र आप् + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6). The entire term ‘क्त्वा’ is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य।
    Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)
    = प्र आप् + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    Note: Since the affix ‘य’ begins with the letter ‘य्’ (which does not belong to the प्रत्याहार: ‘वल्’) it cannot take the augment ‘इट्’ prescribed the सूत्रम् 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।
    = प्राप्य ।
    ‘प्राप्य’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः।

    4. Which सूत्रम् is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अवतार’ (used as part of the compound रामावतारम् in the commentary)?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-3-120 अवे तॄस्त्रोर्घञ् is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अवतार’।

    Please refer to the following post for the derivation of the form ‘अवतार’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/06/03/अवतारः-mns/

    5. How would use say this in Sanskrit?
    “My name is Satish.” Paraphrase to “I am Satish by name.”
    Answer: नाम्ना शतीशः अहम् = नाम्ना शतीशोऽहम् ।

    6. How would use say this in Sanskrit?
    “People living in India are vegetarian for the most part.”
    Answer: भारतदेशे निवसन्तः जनाः प्रायेण शाकाहारिणः सन्ति = भारतदेशे निवसन्तो जनाः प्रायेण शाकाहारिणः सन्ति ।

    Easy questions:

    1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘स्य’ in भविष्यति?
    Answer: The affix ‘स्य’ in the form भविष्यति is prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-1-33 स्यतासी लृलुटोः।

    Please refer to the following post for derivation of the form भविष्यति – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/02/25/भविष्यति-3as-लृँट्/

    2. Is there an alternate form for जन्मनी (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जन्मन्’, द्वितीया-द्विवचनम्)?
    Answer: No. As per 6-4-137 न संयोगाद्वमन्तात् – The letter ‘अ’ of ‘अन्’ does not take elision (लोपः as ordained by 6-4-134), when it follows a conjunct that has the letter ‘व्’ or the letter ‘म्’ as its last member.
    In the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जन्मन्’ the conjunct ‘न्म्’ is preceding ‘अन्’ and hence 6-4-137 stops 6-4-134.

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