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सप्ताहम् mAs

Today we will look at the form सप्ताहम् mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.46.25.

कंसं नागायुतप्राणं मल्लौ गजपतिं तथा । अवधिष्टां लीलयैव पशूनिव मृगाधिपः ।। १०-४६-२४ ।।
तालत्रयं महासारं धनुर्यष्टिमिवेभराट् । बभञ्जैकेन हस्तेन सप्ताहमदधाद्गिरिम् ।। १०-४६-२५ ।।

न केवलं तद्वचनानुसारेणैव व्यवहारसंवादादपीत्याह – कंसमिति ।। २४ ।। इभराड्यष्टिमिव तालत्रयप्रमाणं धनुर्बभञ्ज ।। २५ ।।

Gita Press translation – They killed in mere sport Kaṁsa, who possessed the strength of (not less than) ten thousand elephants, and (his) two (principal) wrestlers (Cāṇūra and Muṣṭika) as well as Kuvalayapīḍa (the chief of his elephants) (just) as a lion (the king of beasts) would kill (a number of) animals (24). Kṛṣṇa snapped the most powerful bow (of Kaṁsa) measuring 3 Tālas (equivalent to 27 spans), (even) as a leader of elephants would break a sugarcane, and held the (Govardhana) hill with one hand for a (full) week (25).

सप्ताहम् is द्वितीया-एकवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सप्ताह’।

‘सप्ताह’ gets the द्वितीया-विभक्तिः by 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) denoting (measure of) time or (measure of) path/road when continuous connection (with a quality or action or thing) is meant.

(1) सप्ताह + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌, 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(2) सप्ताहम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्व: – In place of a preceding letter ‘अक्’ and the following vowel (‘अच्’) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.


1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे been used in the last ten verses of Chapter Six of the Geeta?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says – अत्यन्तसंयोगे किम्? मासस्य द्विरधीते। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् is used to justify the affix क्विँप् used to compose the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘राज्’ (used in the compound इभराट्)?

4. Which कृत् affix is used to compose the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अधिप’ (used as part of the compound मृगाधिपः)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“(Please) wait for a second.” Paraphrase to passive (भावे प्रयोग:) – “Let it be waited for a second.” Use the verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७) for ‘to wait.’

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Rāma lived in the forest for fourteen years.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘वध’ in अवधिष्टाम्?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-8 लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य been used in the verses?

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