Home » Example for the day » चमरान् mAp

चमरान् mAp

Today we will look at the form चमरान् mAp from रघुवंशम् verse 9-66.

चमरान्परितः प्रवर्तिताश्वः क्वचिदाकर्णविकृष्टभल्लवर्षी ।
नृपतीनिव तान्वियोज्य सद्यः सितबालव्यजनैर्जगाम शान्तिम् ॥ 9-66॥

टीका
क्वचिच्चमरान्परितः । ‘अभितःपरितःसमया-‘ (वा. 1-4-48) इत्यादिना द्वितीया । प्रवर्तिताश्वः । प्रधाविताश्वः [आकर्णविकृष्टभल्लवर्षी]  आकर्णविकृष्टभल्लानिषुविशेषान्वर्षतीति तथोक्तः स नृपः । नृपतीनिव तान् चमरान् सितबालव्यजनैः शुभ्रचामरैः वियोज्य विरहय्य सद्यः शान्तिं जगाम । शूराणां परकीयमैश्वर्यमेवासह्यम् । न तु जीवितमिति भावः । औपच्छन्दसिकं वृत्तम् ।।

Translation – At times he turned his horse towards the Yaks, and showering arrows, drawn to his ears, he tore away from them, as from (rival) kings, the chowries of their white tails, and then felt at ease (66).

चमरान् is द्वितीया-बहुवचनम् of the पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चमर’।

(1) चमर + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। ‘चमर’ takes a second case affix by the वार्तिकम् (under 2-3-2 कर्मणि द्वितीया in the महाभाष्यम्) अभितःपरितःसमयानिकषाहाप्रतियोगेऽपि – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with ‘अभितः’ or ‘परितः’ or ‘समया’ or ‘निकषा’ or ‘हा’ or ‘प्रति’।
Note: ‘अभितःपरितः’ इत्यत्राद्यस्योभयत इत्यर्थोऽन्त्यस्य सर्वत इत्यर्थ इति ‘५-३-९ पर्यभिभ्यां च’ इत्यत्र भाष्ये। In the भाष्यम् under the सूत्रम् 5-3-9 पर्यभिभ्यां च it is stated that here the meaning of अभितः is उभयतः (on both sides) and that of परितः is सर्वतः (on all sides.)

(2) चमर + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘शस्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(3) चमरास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(4) चमरान् । By 6-1-103 तस्माच्छसो नः पुंसि – In the masculine gender, when the letter ‘स्’ of the affix ‘शस्’ follows a vowel which has been elongated by 6-1-102 then it is replaced by the letter ‘न्’।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the वार्तिकम् ‘अभितःपरितःसमयानिकषाहाप्रतियोगेऽपि’ the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – समयानिकषाशब्दौ सामीप्यवचनावव्ययौ। Please explain.

2. Can you spot the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) in the verses?

3. In which sense has the affix ‘क्त’ been used in the form जीवितम् in the commentary?
i) कर्तरि
ii) कर्मणि
iii) भावे
iv) करणे

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अय्’ in विरहय्य (used in the commentary?)

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My house is near the temple.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Hanumān saw ogresses standing all around Sītā.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘शप्’ in the commentary?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Commenting on the वार्तिकम् ‘अभितःपरितःसमयानिकषाहाप्रतियोगेऽपि’ the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – समयानिकषाशब्दौ सामीप्यवचनावव्ययौ। Please explain.
    Answer: The words समया and निकषा occurring in the above वार्तिकम् are indeclinables (अव्ययौ) used in the meaning of ‘nearness’ (सामीप्यम्)।

    2. Can you spot the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) in the verses?
    Answer: The substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) occurs in the form वियोज्य – derived from the causative form of the verbal root √युज् (युजिँर् योगे ७. ७) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘वि’।

    युज् + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च।
    = युज् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = योज् + इ । By 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च।
    = योजि । ‘योजि’ gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।

    योजि + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले।
    Note: Here the common agent of the actions वियोज्य (having torn away) and शान्तिं जगाम (felt at ease) is राजा (who has not been explicitly mentioned in the verse.) The earlier of the two actions is the action of having tore away which is denoted by ‘योजि’ and hence ‘योजि’ takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।
    Note: अव्ययकृतो भावे (from महाभाष्यम्) – कृत् affixes (such as ‘क्‍त्‍वा’) having the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा are used to denote भाव: (action) – and not the agent (ref. 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌) of the action.

    वि योजि + क्त्वा । ‘योजि + क्त्वा’ is compounded with ‘वि’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    = वि योजि + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌। The entire term ‘क्त्वा’ is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य।
    Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)
    = वि योजि + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    Note: Since the affix ‘य’ begins with the letter ‘य्’ (which does not belong to the प्रत्याहार: ‘वल्’) it cannot take the augment ‘इट्’ prescribed the सूत्रम् 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः। This allows 6-4-51 to apply in the next step.
    = वि योज्य । By 6-4-51 णेरनिटि।
    ‘वियोज्य’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः।

    3. In which sense has the affix ‘क्त’ been used in the form जीवितम् in the commentary?
    i) कर्तरि
    ii) कर्मणि
    iii) भावे
    iv) करणे

    Answer: In the form जीवितम् (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जीवित’, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) the affix ‘क्त’ has been used भावे। Hence it has the same meaning here as जीवनम्।

    The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जीवित’ is derived from the verbal root √जीव् (जीवँ प्राणधारणे १. ६४३) as follows:
    जीव् + क्त । By 3-3-114 नपुंसके भावे क्तः – The affix ‘क्त’ may be used following a verbal root to denote in the neuter gender the sense of the verbal root as having attained to a completed state, without restriction to the time frame (past, present or future.)
    = जीव् + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = जीव् + इट् त । By 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः, 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ।
    = जीव् इ त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = जीवित ।
    ‘जीवित’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अय्’ in विरहय्य (used in the commentary?)
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-56 ल्यपि लघुपूर्वात्‌ prescribes the substitution ‘अय्’ in विरहय्य – derived from the causative form of the verbal root √रह (रह त्यागे १०.३९६) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘वि’।

    रह + णिच् । By 3-1-25 सत्यापपाशरूपवीणातूलश्लोकसेनालोमत्वचवर्मवर्णचूर्णचुरादिभ्यो णिच्। The affix ‘णिच्’ gets the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः। This allows the application of the सूत्रम् 6-4-48 अतो लोपः in the next step.
    = रह् + णिच् । By 6-4-48 अतो लोपः। Note: As per 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः, the affix ‘णिच्’ would do a वृद्धि: substitution in place of the letter ‘अ’ of the अङ्गम् ‘रह्’। But this does not happen because as per 1-1-57 अचः परस्मिन् पूर्वविधौ, the लोप: done by 6-4-48 has स्थानिवद्-भाव: (it behaves like the item it replaced – the letter ‘अ’) when it comes to an operation (वृद्धि:) that would be performed to the left of it. Hence as far as 7-2-116 is concerned, the उपधा of the अङ्गम् is the letter ‘ह्’ and hence it cannot apply.
    = रह् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = रहि । ‘रहि’ gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।

    रहि + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले।
    Note: Here the common agent of the actions विरहय्य (having torn away) and शान्तिं जगाम (felt at ease) is राजा (who has not been explicitly mentioned in the verse.) The earlier of the two actions is the action of having tore away which is denoted by ‘रहि’ and hence ‘रहि’ takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।
    Note: अव्ययकृतो भावे (from महाभाष्यम्) – कृत् affixes (such as ‘क्‍त्‍वा’) having the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा are used to denote भाव: (action) – and not the agent (ref. 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌) of the action.
    = वि रहि + क्त्वा । ‘रहि + क्त्वा’ is compounded with ‘वि’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    = वि रहि + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌। The entire term ‘क्त्वा’ is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य।
    Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)
    = वि रहि + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = वि रहय् + य । By 6-4-56 ल्यपि लघुपूर्वात्‌ – The affix ‘णि’ is substituted by ‘अय्’ when the following two conditions are satisfied –
    (i) ‘णि’ is preceded by a letter (‘ह्’ in this case) which itself is preceded by a vowel (‘अ’ in this case) having the designation ‘लघु’ (ref. 1-4-10 ह्रस्वं लघु) and
    (ii) ‘णि’ is followed by the affix ‘ल्यप्’।

    ‘विरहय्य’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः।

    5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “My house is near the temple.”
    Answer: मम गृहम् मन्दिरम् निकषा/समया वर्तते = मम गृहं मन्दिरं निकषा/समया वर्तते ।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Śrī Hanumān saw ogresses standing all around Sītā.”
    Answer: श्रीहनुमान् सीताम् परितः तिष्ठन्तीः राक्षसीः ददर्श = श्रीहनुमान् सीतां परितस्तिष्ठन्ती राक्षसीर्ददर्श ।

    Easy questions:

    1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः has been used in the verses in the form जगाम। As per 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः – In a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), a letter of the कवर्गः or the letter ‘ह्’ is replaced by a letter of the चवर्गः । The substitutions take place as per 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः।

    Please refer to the answer to question 5 in the following comment for derivation of जगाम – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/02/05/प्रेषयामास-3as-लिँट्/#comment-3232

    2. Can you spot the affix ‘शप्’ in the commentary?
    Answer: The affix ‘शप्’ occurs in the commentary in the form वर्षति√वृष् (वृषुँ सेचने हिंसासङ्क्लेशनयोश्च १. ८०३).

    The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।
    वृष् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्।
    = वृष् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = वृष् + तिप् । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्।
    = वृष् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = वृष् + शप् + ति । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप् – The affix ‘शप्’ is placed after a verbal root, when followed by a सार्वधातुकम् affix that is used signifying the agent.
    = वृष् + अ + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = वर्ष् + अ + ति । By 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च, 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः।
    = वर्षति ।

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

March 2014
M T W T F S S
« Feb   Apr »
 12
3456789
10111213141516
17181920212223
24252627282930
31  

Topics