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प्रासादात् m-Ab-s

Today we will look at the form प्रासादात् m-Ab-s from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.7.12.

श्वः पुष्येण जितक्रोधं यौवराज्येन चानघम् । राजा दशरथो राममभिषेक्ता हि राघवम् ।। २-७-११ ।।
धात्र्यास्तु वचनं श्रुत्वा कुब्जा क्षिप्रममर्षिता । कैलासशिखराकारात् प्रसादादवरोहत ।। २-७-१२ ।।
सा दह्यमाना कोपेन मन्थरा पापदर्शिनी । शयानामेव कैकेयीमिदं वचनमब्रवीत् ।। २-७-१३ ।।
उत्तिष्ठ मूढे किं शेषे भयं त्वामभिवर्तते । उपप्लुतमघौघेन नात्मानमवबुध्यसे ।। २-७-१४ ।।

Gita Press translation – “Tomorrow under the asterism Puṣya, (she added) will Emperor Daśaratha positively install in the office of Prince Regent the sinless Rāma (a scion of Raghu), who has conquered wrath.” (11) Filled with indignation to hear the report of the nurse, the hunchbacked maid-servant for her part got down at once from (the roof of) the palace, which resembled in shape a peak of Kailāsa (12). Burning with anger, Mantharā, who scented foul play (in the move of the Emperor), spoke as follows to Kaikeyī even while she was reposing (in bed) :- (13) “Get up, O deluded one! How can you keep lying down? Peril stares you in the face! You do not perceive yourself threatened by a flood of misery! (14)

प्रसीदन्त्यत्रेति प्रासाद:।

The पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रासाद’ is derived from the verbal root √सद् (षद्ऌँ विशरणगत्यवसादनेषु १. ९९०, ६. १६३) with the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’।

(1) प्र सद् + घञ् । By 3-3-121 हलश्च – To denote the instrument or the locus of the action, the affix घञ् is used following a verbal root ending in a consonant provided the word so derived is used in the masculine gender as a proper name.
Note: The affix ‘घञ्’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: (exception) to the affix ‘घ’ prescribed by 3-3-118 पुंसि संज्ञायां घः प्रायेण।

(2) प्र सद् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) प्र साद् + अ । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः – A penultimate letter (उपधा) ‘अ’ of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by an affix which is a ञित् (has the letter ‘ञ्’ as a इत्) or a णित् (has the letter ‘ण्’ as a इत्)।

(4) प्रासाद । By the 6-3-122 उपसर्गस्य घञ्यमनुष्ये बहुलम् – (The ending vowel of) a उपसर्ग: (ref. 1-4-59) is variously elongated when followed by a term which ends in the affix घञ्, provided that the derived word does not denote a human being.

Note: In the महाभाष्यम् under this सूत्रम् there is a वार्त्तिकम् which reads सादकारयो: कृत्रिमे – When ‘साद’ or ‘कार’ follows, the elongation (prescribed by 6-3-122) should be done only when the derived word denotes something artificial. Hence we have प्रासाद: (palace) and प्राकार: (fence), but प्रसाद: (grace) and प्रकार: (manner.)

‘प्रासाद’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्

(5) प्रासाद + ङसिँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(6) प्रासाद + आत् । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः – Following a अङ्गम् ending in the letter ‘अ’, the affixes ‘टा’, ‘ङसिँ’ and ‘ङस्’ are replaced respectively by ‘इन’, ‘आत्’ and ‘स्य’। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘त्’ of ‘आत्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) प्रासादात् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः


1. In Chapter Two of the गीता where has the affix घञ् been used with the verbal root √सद् (षद्ऌँ विशरणगत्यवसादनेषु १. ९९०, ६. १६३) with the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-122 उपसर्गस्य घञ्यमनुष्ये बहुलम् (used in step 4) the काशिका says – अमनुष्य इति किम्? निषादो मनुष्यः। Please explain.

3. Where else (besides in प्रासादात्) has the सूत्रम् 3-3-121 हलश्च been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘णिनिँ’ in the word पापदर्शिनी?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I wonder who lives in this palace.” Use the अव्ययम् ‘नु’ to express the meaning of ‘I wonder.’

Advanced question:

1. In Chapter Three of the अष्टाध्यायी can you find a सूत्रम् which prescribes the affix ‘ष्ट्रन्’ in the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘धात्री’ (used in the word धात्र्या: in the verses)? Hint: पाणिनि: specifically mentions the affix ‘ष्ट्रन्’ in the सूत्रम्।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the गुण: substitution in the word शेषे?

2. Can you spot the affix श्यन् in the verses?

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