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निनदम् mAs

Today we will look at the form निनदम् mAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 4.15.2.

अथ तस्य निनादं तं सुग्रीवस्य महात्मनः । शुश्रावान्तःपुरगतो वाली भ्रातुरमर्षणः ।। ४-१५-१ ।।
श्रुत्वा तु तस्य निनदं सर्वभूतप्रकम्पनम् । मदश्चैकपदे नष्टः क्रोधश्चापादितो महान् ।। ४-१५-२ ।।
स तु रोषपरीताङ्गो वाली स कनकप्रभः । उपरक्त इवादित्यः सद्यो निष्प्रभतां गतः ।। ४-१५-३ ।।
वाली दंष्ट्राकरालस्तु क्रोधाद्दीप्ताग्निलोचनः । भात्युत्पतितपद्माभः समृणाल इव ह्रदः ।। ४-१५-४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Vālī, who was intolerant (by nature), and who happened to be in his gynaeceum (at the time), forthwith heard the aforesaid roar of the celebrated Sugrīva, who was noted for his extraordinary fortitude (1). On hearing his roar, which caused all created beings to tremble (with fear), Vālī’s vanity vanished all at once and a violent rage was aroused (in him) (2). The notorious Vālī, who possessed splendor of gold, thereupon lost his brilliance at once as the sun under eclipse, (all) his limbs seized with anger (3). Vālī, for his part, who looked fierce with his teeth and whose eyes shone like a blazing fire through anger, looked like a pond from which the splendor of lotuses has disappeared and in which the fibrous roots (alone) float (4).

निनदनं निनद:।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘निनद’ is derived from the verbal root √नद् (णदँ अव्यक्ते शब्दे १. ५६) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘नि’। The initial णकार: of ‘णदँ’ is replaced by a नकार: by 6-1-65 णो नः

(1) नि नद् + अप् । By the 3-3-64 नौ गदनदपठस्वनः – The affix अप् is optionally used following the verbal root √गद् (गदँ व्यक्तायां वाचि १.५४) or √नद् (णदँ अव्यक्ते शब्दे १. ५६) or √पठ् (पठँ व्यक्तायां वाचि १. ३८१) or √स्वन् (स्वनँ शब्दे १. ९६१) – provided any one of these verbal roots is preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘नि’ – to denote either (i) the sense of the verbal root as having attained to a completed state or (ii) any कारक: except the agent of the action, provided the word so derived is a proper name.
Note: In the other case (where the affix अप् is not used) the affix घञ् is used as per 3-3-18 भावे and 3-3-19 अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम्

See question 2.

(2) नि नद् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

= निनद । ‘निनद’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: घञबन्त: (लिङ्गानुशासनम् २.२) – A प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the affix ‘घञ्’ or ‘अप्’ is used in the masculine gender.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्

(3) निनद + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकारः of ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) निनदम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.


1. In Chapter One of the गीता can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् (used as part of a compound) formed using the affix घञ् with the verbal root √नद् (णदँ अव्यक्ते शब्दे १. ५६)?

2. What would be the alternate final form in the example? (Hint: This form has been used in the verses.)

3. Which सूत्रम् prevents the affix ‘क्त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ in the form नष्टः?

4. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दंष्ट्रा’ (used as part of the compound दंष्ट्राकरालः in the verses)?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-24 अनिदितां हल उपधायाः क्ङिति been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The lion’s roar caused all the deer to tremble.” Use (a causative form) of the verbal root √कम्प् (कपिँ चलने १. ४३५) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ for ‘to tremble.’

Easy questions:

1. In the verses can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the letter ‘ऋ’?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-13 सौ च been used in the verses?

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