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आहवे mLs

Today we will look at the form आहवे mLs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.2.20.

दृष्टा भवद्भिर्ननु राजसूये चैद्यस्य कृष्णं द्विषतोऽपि सिद्धिः । यां योगिनः संस्पृहयन्ति सम्यग्योगेन कस्तद्विरहं सहेत ।। ३-२-१९ ।।
तथैव चान्ये नरलोकवीरा य आहवे कृष्णमुखारविन्दम् । नेत्रैः पिबन्तो नयनाभिरामं पार्थास्त्रपूताः पदमापुरस्य ।। ३-२-२० ।।

न च तस्येश्वरत्वं साधनीयं, भवद्भिरपि दृष्टत्वादित्याह – दृष्टेति । यां सिद्धिं सम्यग्योगेन प्राप्तुमिच्छन्ति ।। १९ ।। आहवे युद्धे पार्थस्यास्त्रैः पूताः निष्पापाः सन्तः ।। २० ।।

Gita Press translation – You must have seen (with your own eyes) the consummation (oneness with the Lord) attained by Śiśupāla (the king of Cedi), who hated Śrī Kṛṣṇa – a consummation which even  Yogīs (ascetics) long to attain through the efficient practice of Yoga! Who could bear separation from such a benign Lord? (19) Similarly, such other heroes of this mortal world as were killed in action (during the Mahābhārata war) by the missiles discharged by Arjuna (son of Pṛthā), while drinking with (the cup of) their eyes (the nectar of) Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s lotus-like countenance, which ravished all eyes, attained to His (supreme) Abode (20).


The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आहव’ is derived from the verbal root √ह्वे (ह्वेञ् स्पर्धायां शब्दे च १. ११६३) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘आङ्’।

(1) आङ् ह्वा + अप् । By 3-3-73 आङि युद्धे – To derive a word meaning युद्धम् ‘war’, the affix अप् may be used following the verbal root √ह्वे (ह्वेञ् स्पर्धायां शब्दे च १. ११६३) when in composition with the उपसर्ग: ‘आङ्’ and simultaneously the (letter ‘व्’ of) the verbal root takes सम्प्रसारणम् (ref. 1-1-45.)
By 6-1-45 आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति – The ending एच् (“ए”, “ओ”, “ऐ”, “औ”) letter of a धातु: in the धातु-पाठ: is replaced by a आकार:, but not in the context where a शकार: which is a इत् follows.

(2) आ ह्वा + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) आ ह् व् आ + अ = आ ह् उ आ + अ । सम्प्रसारणम् by the same सूत्रम् 3-3-73 आङि युद्धे (used in step 1 above.)

See question 3.

(4) आ हु + अ । By 6-1-108 सम्प्रसारणाच्च – When a सम्प्रसारणम् is followed by a अच् (vowel), there is a single replacement (in place of both the सम्प्रसारणम् and the following अच्) of the prior letter (the सम्प्रसारणम्)।

(5) आ हो + अ । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(6) आ हव् + अ = आहव । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

‘आहव’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: घञबन्त: (लिङ्गानुशासनम् २.२) – A प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the affix ‘घञ्’ or ‘अप्’ is used in the masculine gender.

The विवक्षा is सप्तमी-एकवचनम्

(7) आहव + ङि । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌

(8) आहव + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(9) आहवे । By 6-1-87 आद्गुणः


1. Where has the word आहवे been used in Chapter One of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-3-73 आङि युद्धे the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – युद्धे किम्? आह्वाय:। Please explain.

3. Could we use 6-1-15 वचिस्वपियजादीनां किति for the सम्प्रसारणम् operation in step 3? The answer is no. Why not? (Which condition is not satisfied?)

4. Can you recall a सूत्रम् (which we have studied) in which पाणिनि: specifically mentions the verbal root √ह्वे (ह्वेञ् स्पर्धायां शब्दे च १. ११६३)?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Arjuna did not want to kill (his) own kinsmen in war.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बन्धु’ for ‘kinsman’ and the pronoun प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्व’ for ‘own.’ Use the affix ‘तुमुँन्’ to express the meaning ‘want to.’

6. Translate the same sentence (given in question 5 above) but this time use the affix ‘सन्’ to express the meaning ‘want to kill.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment ‘सीयुट्’ in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitute letter ‘छ्’ in the form इच्छन्ति used in the commentary?

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