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सन्धिः mNs

Today we will look at the form सन्धिः mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.35.9.

विद्यास्वभिविनीतो यो राजा राजन्नयानुगः । स शास्ति चिरमैश्वर्यमरींश्च कुरुते वशे ।। ६-३५-७ ।।
संदधानो हि कालेन विगृह्णंश्चारिभिः सह । स्वपक्षे वर्धनं कुर्वन्महदैश्वर्यमश्नुते ।। ६-३५-८ ।।
हीयमानेन कर्तव्यो राज्ञा संधिः समेन च । न शत्रुमवमन्येत ज्यायान्कुर्वीत विग्रहम् ।। ६-३५-९ ।।
तन्मह्यं रोचते संधिः सह रामेण रावण । यदर्थमभियुक्तोऽसि सीता तस्मै प्रदीयताम् ।। ६-३५-१० ।।
तस्य देवर्षयः सर्वे गन्धर्वाश्च जयैषिणः । विरोधं मा गमस्तेन संधिस्ते तेन रोचताम् ।। ६-३५-११ ।।

Gita Press translation – “That monarch, O king, who is well-versed in the (fourteen) sciences and follows the path of prudence enjoys sovereignty for a long time and brings his enemies under subjection (7). Concluding peace or contending with his enemies as occasion demands, and strengthening his own party, a ruler enjoys great power (8). Peace should be concluded by a ruler who is ruling strength as well as by him who is equally matched (in strength with his enemy). He should in no case under-rate his enemy and should wage war (against him) if he is superior (in strength to his enemy) (9). Therefore, O Rāvaṇa alliance with Rāma finds favor with me. Let Sītā, for whose sake you have been attacked (by him), be restored to him (10). Celestial sages as well as Gandharvas (heavenly musicians) all wish him victory. (Therefore) do not antagonize him; let an alliance with him find favor with you (11).

सन्धानं सन्धि:/संधि:।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सन्धि/संधि’ is derived from the verbal root √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११) with the उपसर्ग: ‘सम्’।

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(1) सम् धा + कि । By 3-3-92 उपसर्गे घोः किः – Following a verbal root which has the designation ‘घु’ (ref. 1-1-20 दाधा घ्वदाप्) and is in conjunction with a उपसर्ग:, the affix ‘कि’ may be used to denote either (i) the sense of the verbal root as having attained to a completed state or (ii) any कारक: except the agent of the action, provided the word so derived is a proper name.

(2) सम् धा + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) सम् ध् + इ । By 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च – The ending आकार: of an अङ्गम् takes लोप: when followed by a vowel-beginning आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: that has either:
(i) a “इट्”-आगम: or
(ii) a ककार: or ङकार: as an इत्।

(4) संधि । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः

(5) सन्धि/संधि । By 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य

‘सन्धि/संधि’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: Words ending in the affix ‘कि’ derived using the सूत्रम् 3-3-92 are used in the masculine gender. The विवक्षा here is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(6) सन्धि/संधि + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) सन्धि/संधि + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) सन्धि:/संधि: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-92 उपसर्गे घोः किः been used in the last twenty verses of Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the affix ‘कि’ (used in step 1) the काशिका says – कित्करणमातो लोपार्थम्। Please explain.

3. Can you spot the affix ‘णिनिँ’ in the verses?

4. Which वार्तिकम् prescribes the affix अप् in the form वशे?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-55 पुषादिद्युताद्यॢदितः परस्मैपदेषु been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Rāma made an alliance with Sugrīva.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि been used in a तिङन्तं पदम् in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘श्नु’ in अश्नुते?

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April 2013