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स्वनम् mAs

Today we will look at the form स्वनम् mAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 1.64.8.

तामुवाच सहस्राक्षो वेपमानां कृताञ्जलिम् । मा भैषी रम्भे भद्रं ते कुरुष्व मम शासनम् ।। १-६४-५ ।।
कोकिलो हृदयग्राही माधवे रुचिरद्रुमे । अहं कन्दर्पसहितः स्थास्यामि तव पार्श्वतः ।। १-६४-६ ।।
त्वं हि रूपं बहुगुणं कृत्वा परमभास्वरम् । तमृषिं कौशिकं रम्भे भेदयस्व तपस्विनम् ।। १-६४-७ ।।
सा श्रुत्वा वचनं तस्य कृत्वा रूपमनुत्तमम् । लोभयामास ललिता विश्वामित्रं शुचिस्मिता ।। १-६४-८ ।।
कोकिलस्य तु शुश्राव वल्गु व्याहरतः स्वनम् । सम्प्रहृष्टेन मनसा तत एनामुदैक्षत ।। १-६४-९ ।।

Gita Press translation – (Requested thus) with a mind full of fear by the frightened nymph on that occasion, O Rāma, Indra (the thousand-eyed god) spoke (as follows) to her, who stood trembling (before him) with joined palms: – “Do not be afraid, Rambhā, may all be well with you! (Please) do my bidding (5). Accompanied by the god of love, I (too) shall remain by your side in the form of a cuckoo, that captivates the heart (by its enthralling notes) in the vernal season when the trees assume a delightful appearance (with their green foliage and fragrant blossoms) (6). Wearing an exceedingly smart appearance full of manifold charms, do divert the mind of the celebrated sage Viśwāmitra (son of Kuśika), who is given to austerities, O good lady!” (7) Hearing his command and assuming looks which could not be excelled by another, the belle, who wore a bright smile (on her lips) proceeded to lure Viśwāmitra (8). He heard the notes of the warbling cuckoo and with an overjoyed mind scanned her too (9).

स्वननं स्वन:।

The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्वन’ is derived from the verbal root √स्वन् (स्वनँ शब्दे १. ९६१)

(1) स्वन् + अप् । By the 3-3-62 स्वनहसोर्वा – The affix अप् is optionally used following the verbal root √स्वन् (स्वनँ शब्दे १. ९६१) or √हस् (हसेँ हसने १. ८२२) – provided any one of these two verbal roots is not in conjunction with a उपसर्ग: – to denote either (i) the sense of the verbal root as having attained to a completed state or (ii) any कारक: except the agent of the action, provided the word so derived is a proper name.
Note: In the other case (where the affix अप् is not used) the affix घञ् is used as per 3-3-18 भावे and 3-3-19 अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम्

See question 1.

(2) स्वन् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

= स्वन । ‘स्वन’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

Note: घञबन्त: (लिङ्गानुशासनम् २.२) – A प्रातिपदिकम् ending in the affix ‘घञ्’ or ‘अप्’ is used in the masculine gender.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्

(3) स्वन + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकारः of ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(4) स्वनम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.


1. What would be the alternate final form in this example (in the case where the affix घञ् is used)?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-3-62 स्वनहसोर्वा (used in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – ‘अनुपसर्गे’ इत्येव। प्रस्वान:। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix वरच् in the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भास्वर’ (used as part of the compound परमभास्वरम्)?

4. Can you spot the substitution ‘सिँच्’ (in the place of ‘च्लि’) in the verses?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“When Śrī Rāma broke King Janaka’s bow a big sound was generated.” Use the verbal root √भन्ज् (भन्जोँ आमर्दने ७. १६) for ‘to break.’ Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महत्’ for ‘big.’ Use a causative form of the verbal root √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४) for ‘to generate.’ Use the निष्ठा affix ‘क्त’।

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment आट् in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘स्य’ in the form स्थास्यामि?

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