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उदधिः mNs

Today we will look at the form उदधिः mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.22.47.

एवमुक्त्वोदधिर्नष्टः समुत्थाय नलस्ततः । अब्रवीद्वानरश्रेष्ठो वाक्यं रामं महाबलः ।। ६-२२-४७ ।।
अहं सेतुं करिष्यामि विस्तीर्णे मकरालये । पितुः सामर्थ्यमासाद्य तत्त्वमाह महोदधिः ।। ६-२२-४८ ।।
दण्ड एव परो लोके पुरुषस्येति मे मतिः । धिक् क्षमामकृतज्ञेषु सान्त्वं दानमथापि वा ।। ६-२२-४९ ।।
अयं हि सागरो भीमः सेतुकर्मदिदृक्षया । ददौ दण्डभयाद् गाधं राघवाय महोदधिः ।। ६-२२-५० ।।

Gita Press translation – Having spoken as aforesaid, the sea-god went out of sight. Springing on his feet, Nala, the foremost of the monkeys, thereupon submitted as follows to Śrī Rāma, who was endowed with extraordinary might :- (47) “Acquiring the skill of my father (by virtue of the boon granted by him), I shall build a bridge over the extensive deep (the abode of alligators). Ocean has spoken the (bare) truth (48). Punishment is the best course open to a man in the world in relation to the ungrateful: such is my mind. A plague on forbearance and conciliation and even so on gift (in relation to such people)! (49) This formidable Ocean, excavated and expanded by Sāgara (a forbear of yours), has actually allowed a passage to Śrī Rāma (yourself) in fear of punishment (rather than from gratitude) actuated as he was by a desire to witness the construction of a bridge (across it) (50).

उदकं धीयतेऽस्मिन् = उदधि: (समुद्र:)।

The compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उदधि’ is derived from the verbal root  √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११) in composition with the object ‘उदक’।

The “डु” at the beginning of this धातुः gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-5 आदिर्ञिटुडवः। The ञकारः at the end gets इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्। Both take लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(1) उदक + ङस् (ref: 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति) + धा + कि । By 3-3-93 कर्मण्यधिकरणे च – To denote the locus of the action, the affix ‘कि’ may be used following a verbal root which has the designation ‘घु’ (ref. 1-1-20 दाधा घ्वदाप्) when in composition with a पदम् which denotes the object (of the action.)

(2) उदक + ङस् + धा + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) उदक + ङस् + ध् + इ । By 6-4-64 आतो लोप इटि च – The ending आकार: of an अङ्गम् takes लोप: when followed by a vowel-beginning आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: that has either:
(i) a “इट्”-आगम: or
(ii) a ककार: or ङकार: as an इत्।

= उदक + ङस् + धि

We form a compound between ‘उदक ङस्’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘धि’ by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation ‘उपपद’ (in this case ‘उदक ङस्’) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case ‘धि’) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, ‘उदक ङस्’ is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here ‘उदक ङस्’ is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case ‘उपपदम्’) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’।

‘उदक + ङस् + धि’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) उदकधि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) उदधि । By 6-3-57 उदकस्योदः संज्ञायाम् – When followed by a उत्तरपदम् (latter member of the compound), the word ‘उदक’ is substituted by ‘उद’ provided the compound denotes a proper name. As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire term ‘उदक’ is replaced by ‘उद’।

Note: In the case where उदधि: does not denote a proper name – for example उदधिर्घट: – we have to use the next सूत्रम् in the अष्टाध्यायी which is 6-3-58 पेषंवासवाहनधिषु च।

See question 2.

‘उदधि’ meaning ‘समुद्र’ is used in the masculine gender.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(6) उदधि + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) उदधि + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) उदधि: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Where has the affix ‘कि’ been used in the first two verses of Chapter Ten of the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-58 पेषंवासवाहनधिषु च (referred to in step 5) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – समुद्रे तु पूर्वेण सिद्धम्। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘क्’ in the form वाक्यम्?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-77 हलि च been used in the verses?

5. Which वार्तिकम् is used to derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भय’ (used in the compound दण्डभयाद् in the verses)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The circuit of worldly life is like a formidable ocean. The Name of the Lord is like a boat by which a person may be able to cross that (ocean.)” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘संसार’ for ‘the circuit of worldly life.’ Use a word from the verses for ‘formidable.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-111 ऋत उत्‌ been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ईट् in the form अब्रवीत्?

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