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दत्तराज्यः mNs

Today we will look at the form दत्तराज्यः  mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.68.2.

यदसौ मातुलकुले दत्तराज्यः परं सुखी । भरतो वसति भ्रात्रा शत्रुघ्नेन मुदान्वितः ।। २-६८-२ ।।
तच्छीघ्रं जवना दूता गच्छन्तु त्वरितं हयैः । आनेतुं भ्रातरौ वीरौ किं समीक्षामहे वयम् ।। २-६८-३ ।।
गच्छन्त्विति ततः सर्वे वसिष्ठं वाक्यमब्रुवन् । तेषां तद् वचनं श्रुत्वा वसिष्ठो वाक्यमब्रवीत् ।। २-६८-४ ।।

Gita Press translation – ‘Since the celebrated Bharata, on whom kingship has been bestowed (by the emperor urged by Kaikeyī), is leading a most happy and joyous life at his maternal uncle’s with his (younger) brother Śatrughna; therefore let swift messengers proceed quickly on horses to bring the two gallant brothers. What (else) can we thoughtfully consider?’ (2-3) Then all submitted to Vasiṣṭha as follows :- ‘Let the messengers depart.’ Hearing that reply of the counsellors, Vasiṣṭha (again) spoke as follows :- (4)

(1) दत्तं राज्यं यस्मै स: = दत्तराज्यः (भरतः) – He (Bharata) on to whom kingship has been bestowed.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) दत्त सुँ + राज्य सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘दत्त सुँ’ as well as ‘राज्य सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The adjective ‘दत्त सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.
Note: ‘दत्त सुँ + राज्य सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दत्तराज्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example भरत: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दत्तराज्य’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) दत्तराज्य + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) दत्तराज्य + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) दत्तराज्य: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Can you spot a बहुव्रीहि: compound in the first two verses of Chapter Ten of the गीता?

2. From which verbal root is the participle ‘दत्त’ (used as part of the compound दत्तराज्य:) derived?

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the forms भ्रात्रा शत्रुघ्नेन used in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-10 तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्‌ been used in the verses?

5. Where has the affix ‘क’ been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Kaikeyī – on to whom two boons were bestowed – exiled Śrī Rāma for fourteen years.” Use a causative form of the verbal root √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘वि’ for ‘to exile.’ Construct a (feminine) बहुव्रीहि-समास: for ‘one on to whom two boons were bestowed’ = दत्तौ वरौ यस्यै सा। Construct a शाकपार्थिवादि-समास: for ‘fourteen’ = ‘ten plus four’ = चतुरधिकानि दश।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-86 एरुः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘ईट्’ in the form अब्रवीत्?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Can you spot a बहुव्रीहि: compound in the first two verses of Chapter Ten of the गीता?
    Answer: The compound महाबाहो (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महाबाहु’, पुंलिङ्गे सम्बुद्धिः) in the first two verses of Chapter Ten of the गीता is a बहुव्रीहि: compound –

    श्रीभगवानुवाच |
    भूय एव महाबाहो शृणु मे परमं वचः |
    यत्तेऽहं प्रीयमाणाय वक्ष्यामि हितकाम्यया || 10-1||

    The लौकिक-विग्रहः is –
    महान्तौ बाहू यस्य सः = महाबाहुः – one who has mighty arms.

    अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
    महत् औ + बाहु औ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे।
    By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘महत् औ’ as well as ‘बाहु औ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.
    The adjective ‘महत् औ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ।
    Note: ‘महत् औ + बाहु औ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = महत् + बाहु । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = मह आ + बाहु । By 6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः, 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य।
    = महाबाहु । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।

    The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example महाबाहुः is qualifying अर्जुनः। Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘महाबाहु’। It declines like गुरु-शब्द:।

    2. From which verbal root is the participle ‘दत्त’ (used as part of the compound दत्तराज्य:) derived?
    Answer: The participle ‘दत्त’ is derived from the verbal root √दा (डुदाञ् दाने ३. १०).

    The derivation of the participle ‘दत्त’ is shown in the following post – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/12/14/दत्तम्-nns/

    3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the forms भ्रात्रा शत्रुघ्नेन used in the verses?
    Answer: The use of a third case affix in the forms शत्रुघ्नेन (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’शत्रुघ्न’, तृतीया-एकवचनम्) and भ्रात्रा (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’भ्रातृ’, तृतीया-एकवचनम्) is justified by the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with सह or a synonym of सह, provided the प्रातिपदिकम् does not denote the primary (agent.)

    Note: विनापि तद्योगं तृतीया। ‘1-2-65 वृद्धो यूना तल्लक्षणश्चेदेव विशेषः’ इति निर्देशात्। The third case affix may be used even without explicit connection with सह because पाणिनि: has himself used it in the word यूना in the सूत्रम् 1-2-65 which does not explicitly contain the word सह।
    Hence in the present example the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने assigns a third case affix to give the forms शत्रुघ्नेन and भ्रात्रा even though there is only an implicit connection with सह।

    4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-10 तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्‌ been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-3-10 तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्‌ has been used in the form आनेतुम् – derived from the verbal root √नी (णीञ् प्रापणे १. १०४९).

    नी + तुमुँन् । By 3-3-10 तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्‌ – The affix तुमुँन् as well as ण्वुल् may be used following a verbal root to denote a future action when in conjunction with another action intended for the future action.
    In the present example the action of ‘going’ (expressed by गच्छन्तु – ‘let them go’) is intended for the future action of ‘bringing’ (expressed by आनेतुम् – ‘to bring’).
    = नी + तुम् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘तुम्’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।
    = ने + तुम् = नेतुम् । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः।

    ‘नेतुम्’ is compounded with the उपसर्गः ‘आ’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    आ + नेतुम् = आनेतुम् ।

    ‘आनेतुम्’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-39 कृन्मेजन्तः।
    आनेतुम् + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।
    = आनेतुम् । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः।

    5. Where has the affix ‘क’ been used in the verses?
    Answer: The कृत् affix ’क’ has been used in the form शत्रुघ्नेन (पुंलिङ्ग- प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शत्रुघ्न’, तृतीया-एकवचनम्)।

    शत्रून् हन्तीति शत्रुघ्नः।

    Please refer to the following post for derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शत्रुघ्न’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/10/15/शत्रुघ्नः-mns/

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Kaikeyī – on to whom two boons were bestowed – exiled Śrī Rāma for fourteen years.” Use a causative form of the verbal root √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘वि’ for ‘to exile.’ Construct a (feminine) बहुव्रीहि-समास: for ‘one on to whom two boons were bestowed’ = दत्तौ वरौ यस्यै सा। Construct a शाकपार्थिवादि-समास: for ‘fourteen’ = ‘ten plus four’ = चतुरधिकानि दश।
    Answer: दत्तवरा कैकेयी श्रीरामम् चतुर्दश वर्षाणि विवासयामास = दत्तवरा कैकेयी श्रीरामं चतुर्दश वर्षाणि विवासयामास।

    Easy questions:
    1. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-86 एरुः been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-4-86 एरुः has been used in the form गच्छन्तु – derived from the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७).

    The विवक्षा is लोँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।
    गम् + लोँट् । By 3-3-162 लोट् च।
    = गम् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = गम् + झि । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्।
    = गम् + झु । By 3-4-86 एरुः – the letter ‘इ’ of a लोँट् is substituted by the letter ‘उ’ ।
    = गम् + शप् + झु । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्।
    = गम् + अ + झु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = गम् + अ + अन्तु । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः।
    = गछ् + अ + अन्तु । By 7-3-77 इषुगमियमां छः, 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य।
    = गतुँक् छ् + अन्तु । By 6-1-73 छे च, 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ।
    = गत् छ अन्तु । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = गच्छन्तु । By 8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः।

    2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘ईट्’ in the form अब्रवीत्?
    Answer: The augment ईट् in अब्रवीत् is prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-3-93 ब्रुव ईट् – When preceded by the verbal root √ब्रू (ब्रूञ् व्यक्तायां वाचि २. ३९), a सार्वधातुकम् affix which is हलादि: (beginning with a consonant) and is a पित् (has the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्), gets ‘ईट्’ as the augment.

    Please see answer to question 1 in the following comment for derivation of the form अब्रवीत् – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/05/02/व्यवोचत्-3as-लुँङ्/#comment-3687

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