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त्यक्तराज्य: mNs

Today we will look at the form त्यक्तराज्यः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.10.3.

गुर्वर्थे त्यक्तराज्यो व्यचरदनुवनं पद्मपद्भ्यां प्रियायाः पाणिस्पर्शाक्षमाभ्यां मृजितपथरुजो यो हरीन्द्रानुजाभ्याम् ।। ९-१०-३ ।।
वैरूप्याच्छूर्पणख्याः प्रियविरहरुषारोपितभ्रूविजृम्भत्रस्ताब्धिर्बद्धसेतुः खलदवदहनः कोसलेन्द्रोऽवतान्नः ।। ९-१०-४ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
‘ग्रन्थकोटिभिराकीर्णमद्‍भुतं रामविक्रमम् ।। अध्यायद्वयतो वक्ष्यन्नेकश्लोके समस्यति ।।’ इति । स कोशलेन्द्रः श्रीरामो नोऽस्मानवतात्पातु । कथंभूतः । यो गुर्वर्थे पितुः सत्यस्य पालनार्थं त्यक्तराज्यः सन् पद्मवदतिसुकुमाराभ्यां पद्भ्याम् । तदेवाह – प्रियायाः पाणिनापि स्पर्शे नास्ति क्षमा ययोस्ताभ्यां प्रतिवनं व्यचरत् । हरीन्द्रो हनुमान्सुग्रीवो वाऽनुजो लक्ष्मणस्ताभ्यां मृजितापनीता पथरुजा मार्गश्रमो यस्य । शूर्पणख्या वैरूप्यात्कर्णनासिकाच्छेदाद्धेतोः तया प्रलोभितेन रावणेनापहारात्प्रियेण कलत्रेण विरहस्तेन रुट् तयारोपितयोर्भ्रुवोर्विजृम्भेणैव त्रस्तोऽब्धिर्यस्मात् । ततस्तद्विज्ञापनेन बद्धः सेतुर्येन । ततः खला रावणादय एव दवो वनं तस्य दहनः ।। ४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Having abandoned for the sake of (redeeming the pledge of) His father (King Daśaratha) (His title to) kingship, He roamed about from forest to forest by His lotus-feet, which were too soft (even) for the touch of the (petal-like) hands of His beloved Consort (Sītā), His fatigue from the journey being relieved (now and again) by (the blessed) Hanumān (the monkey chief) and His own younger brother (Lakṣmaṇa, who accompanied Him to the forest and kneaded His feet and other limbs along with Hanumān). (The deity presiding over) the ocean was terrified by the (very) display of His brows knit in anger excited by the (grievous) separation from His Darling (Sītā), which had been brought about by the mutilation of Śūrpaṇakhā (sister of Ravaṇa, the demon king of Laṅkā, so-called because she had nails as big as a winnowing basket, nay, whose nose and ears were chopped off by Lakṣmaṇa at the instance of Śrī Rāma, an incident which provoked Rāvaṇa to steal away Sītā in the absence of Śrī Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa). May that Lord of Kosala (Oudh) – who (subsequently) caused a bridge to be built across the sea and exterminated the host of wicked demons (including Rāvaṇa) even as wild fire consumes a (whole) forest – protect us! (4)

(1) त्यक्तं राज्यं येन स: = त्यक्तराज्यः (श्रीरामः) – He (Lord Śrī Rāma) by whom the kingship was abandoned.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) त्यक्त सुँ + राज्य सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘त्यक्त सुँ’ as well as ‘राज्य सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The adjective ‘त्यक्त सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.
Note: ‘त्यक्त सुँ + राज्य सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) त्यक्तराज्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example श्रीरामः is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘त्यक्तराज्य’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) त्यक्तराज्य + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) त्यक्तराज्य + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) त्यक्तराज्य: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. In Chapter One of the गीता can you spot a बहुव्रीहि: compound which – like the compound ‘त्यक्तराज्य’ – has ‘त्यक्त’ as its first member?

2. Which compound used in the verses is a अव्ययीभाव: compound?

3. What is the विग्रह: of the compound बद्धसेतुः used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the form वैरूप्यात् used in the verses?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to construct the उपपद-समास: ‘अनुज’ (used as part of the compound हरीन्द्रानुजाभ्याम् in the verses)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Only one who has studied grammar would know the answer to (of) this question.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who has studied grammar’ = अधीतं व्याकरणं येन स:।

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘श्यन्’ in the commentary?


1 Comment

  1. 1. In Chapter One of the गीता can you spot a बहुव्रीहि: compound which – like the compound ‘त्यक्तराज्य’ – has ‘त्यक्त’ as its first member?
    Answer: The compound त्यक्तजीविताः (प्रातिपदिकम् ’त्यक्तजीवित’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) in following verse of the गीता is a बहुव्रीहि: compound having ‘त्यक्त’ as its first member.

    अन्ये च बहवः शूरा मदर्थे त्यक्तजीविताः ।
    नानाशस्त्रप्रहरणाः सर्वे युद्धविशारदाः ॥ १-९॥

    The लौकिक-विग्रहः is –
    त्यक्तं जीवितं येन स: = त्यक्तजीवितः – he by whom life is abandoned.

    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ’त्यक्तजीवित’ is similar to the derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ’त्यक्तराज्य’ as shown in the post.

    2. Which compound used in the verses is a अव्ययीभाव: compound?
    Answer: The compound अनुवनम् is a अव्ययीभाव: compound.

    लौकिक-विग्रह: –
    वने वने = अनुवनम् = forest after forest.

    अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
    = वन ङि + अनु । By 2-1-6 अव्ययं विभक्तिसमीपसमृद्धिव्यृद्ध्यर्थाभावात्ययासम्प्रतिशब्दप्रादुर्भावपश्चाद्यथानुपूर्व्ययौगपद्यसादृश्यसम्पत्तिसाकल्यान्तवचनेषु – A अव्ययम्‌ (indeclinable) used in any one of the following meanings invariably compounds with a (syntactically related) term ending in a सुँप् affix to yield a अव्ययीभाव: compound –
    (i) विभक्ति: – a case affix
    (ii) समीपम्‌ – close by
    (iii) समृद्धि: (ऋद्धेराधिक्यम्‌) – prosperity
    (iv) व्यृद्धि: (विगता ऋद्धि:) – adversity
    (v) अर्थाभाव: – absence of something
    (vi) अत्यय: (ध्वंस:) – disappearance (passing away)
    (vii) असम्प्रति – presently inappropriate
    (viii) शब्दप्रादुर्भाव: – manifestation of a sound
    (ix) पश्चाद् – following
    (x) यथा (योग्यतावीप्सापदार्थानतिवृत्तिसादृश्यानि यथार्था:) – appropriateness, repetition, non-transgression of something, similarity
    (xi) आनुपूर्व्यम्‌ – in orderly succession
    (xii) यौगपद्यम्‌ – simultaneity
    (xiii) सादृश्यम्‌ – similarity/resemblance. Note: यथार्थत्वेनैव सिद्धे पुन: सादृश्यग्रहणं गुणभूतेऽपि सादृश्ये यथा स्यादित्येवमर्थम्‌ – सादृश्यम्‌ is mentioned here again (even though it is already given as one of the meanings of यथा in (x) above) in order to allow compounding even when सादृश्यम्‌ is used in a secondary (adjectival) sense
    (xiv) सम्पत्ति: (अनुरूप आत्मभाव:) – befitting state
    (xv) साकल्यम्‌ – totality/completeness
    (xvi) अन्त: – termination/end
    = अनु + वन ङि । By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् which prescribes a compound gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’। Here the term ‘अव्ययम्’ in the सूत्रम् 2-1-6 ends in the nominative case. Therefore the अव्ययम् ‘अनु’ gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ by 1-2-43. Hence ‘अनु’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌।
    Note: ‘अनु + वन ङि’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71to apply in the next step.
    = अनुवन । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।

    अनुवन + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
    = अनुवन + अम् । By 2-4-83 नाव्ययीभावादतोऽम्त्वपञ्चम्याः।
    1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
    = अनुवनम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः।

    3. What is the विग्रह: of the compound बद्धसेतुः used in the verses?
    Answer: The विग्रह: of the compound बद्धसेतुः (प्रातिपदिकम् ’बद्धसेतु’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) is –
    बद्धः सेतुर्येन सः = बद्धसेतुः (श्रीरामः) – He (Lord Śrī Rāma) by whom the bridge was built.

    The derivation of the compound ‘बद्धसेतु’ is similar to the derivation of the compound ‘त्यक्तराज्य’ as shown in the above post.

    4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the form वैरूप्यात् used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 2-3-25 विभाषा गुणेऽस्त्रियाम्‌ justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the form वैरूप्यात् (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वैरूप्य’, पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्)।

    वैरूप्य + ङसिँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-25 विभाषा गुणेऽस्त्रियाम्‌ – A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is optionally used following a non-feminine प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes a quality being a cause/reason.
    Note: When the optional fifth case affix is not used, a third case affix is used as per 2-3-23 हेतौ। In the present example ‘वैरूप्य’ is the non-feminine प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes a quality being a cause/reason for the ‘प्रियविरह’ (‘separation from wife.’)
    = वैरूप्य + आत् । By 7-1-12 टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः। Note: Since the substitute ‘आत्’ has more than one letter, as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य, the entire affix (and not just its last letter) is replaced by ‘आत्’।
    1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘त्’ of ‘आत्’ from getting the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
    = वैरूप्यात् । By 6-1-101अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।

    5. Which कृत् affix is used to construct the उपपद-समास: ‘अनुज’ (used as part of the compound हरीन्द्रानुजाभ्याम् in the verses)?
    Answer: The कृत् affix ‘’ is used to construct the उपपद-समास: ‘अनुज’।

    Please see answer to question 5 in the following comment for derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनुज’ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2014/04/07/वैदेह्या-fis/#comment-35039

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Only one who has studied grammar would know the answer to (of) this question.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who has studied grammar’ = अधीतं व्याकरणं येन स:।
    Answer: अधीतव्याकरणः एव अस्य प्रश्नस्य उत्तरम् जानीयात् = अधीतव्याकरण एवास्य प्रश्नस्योत्तरं जानीयात्।

    Easy questions:
    1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः has been used in the form व्यचरत् – derived from the verbal root √चर् (चरँ गत्यर्थ:, भक्षणेऽपि १.६४०).

    The विवक्षा is लङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।
    चर् + लँङ् । By 3-2-111 अनद्यतने लङ्।
    = चर् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = चर् + तिप् । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्।
    = चर् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = चर् + त् । By 3-4-100 इतश्च।
    = चर् + शप् + त् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्।
    = चर् + अ + त् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = अट् चरत् । By 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः – When followed by लुँङ्, लँङ् or लृँङ्, a अङ्गम् gets the augment ‘अट्’ which is उदात्तः। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the augment ‘अट्’ at the beginning of the अङ्गम्।
    = अचरत् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

    ‘वि’ is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
    वि + अचरत् = व्यचरत् । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि।

    2. Can you spot the affix ‘श्यन्’ in the commentary?
    Answer: The affix ‘श्यन्’ has been used in the form समस्यति – derived from the verbal root √अस् (असुँ क्षेपणे ४. १०६).

    The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।
    अस् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्।
    = अस् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = अस् + तिप् । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्।
    = अस् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: The affix ‘ति’ has the designation सार्वधातुकम् as per the सूत्रम् 3-4-113 तिङ्शित्सार्वधातुकम्। This allows 3-1-69 to apply in the next step.
    = अस् + श्यन् + ति । By 3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन् – The affix ‘श्यन्’ is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the दिवादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुकम् affix that is used signifying the agent.
    = अस्यति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

    ’सम्’ is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
    सम् + अस्यति = समस्यति ।

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