Today we will look at the form त्यक्तराज्यः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.10.3.
गुर्वर्थे त्यक्तराज्यो व्यचरदनुवनं पद्मपद्भ्यां प्रियायाः पाणिस्पर्शाक्षमाभ्यां मृजितपथरुजो यो हरीन्द्रानुजाभ्याम् ।। ९-१०-३ ।।
वैरूप्याच्छूर्पणख्याः प्रियविरहरुषारोपितभ्रूविजृम्भत्रस्ताब्धिर्बद्धसेतुः खलदवदहनः कोसलेन्द्रोऽवतान्नः ।। ९-१०-४ ।।
‘ग्रन्थकोटिभिराकीर्णमद्भुतं रामविक्रमम् ।। अध्यायद्वयतो वक्ष्यन्नेकश्लोके समस्यति ।।’ इति । स कोशलेन्द्रः श्रीरामो नोऽस्मानवतात्पातु । कथंभूतः । यो गुर्वर्थे पितुः सत्यस्य पालनार्थं त्यक्तराज्यः सन् पद्मवदतिसुकुमाराभ्यां पद्भ्याम् । तदेवाह – प्रियायाः पाणिनापि स्पर्शे नास्ति क्षमा ययोस्ताभ्यां प्रतिवनं व्यचरत् । हरीन्द्रो हनुमान्सुग्रीवो वाऽनुजो लक्ष्मणस्ताभ्यां मृजितापनीता पथरुजा मार्गश्रमो यस्य । शूर्पणख्या वैरूप्यात्कर्णनासिकाच्छेदाद्धेतोः तया प्रलोभितेन रावणेनापहारात्प्रियेण कलत्रेण विरहस्तेन रुट् तयारोपितयोर्भ्रुवोर्विजृम्भेणैव त्रस्तोऽब्धिर्यस्मात् । ततस्तद्विज्ञापनेन बद्धः सेतुर्येन । ततः खला रावणादय एव दवो वनं तस्य दहनः ।। ४ ।।
Gita Press translation – Having abandoned for the sake of (redeeming the pledge of) His father (King Daśaratha) (His title to) kingship, He roamed about from forest to forest by His lotus-feet, which were too soft (even) for the touch of the (petal-like) hands of His beloved Consort (Sītā), His fatigue from the journey being relieved (now and again) by (the blessed) Hanumān (the monkey chief) and His own younger brother (Lakṣmaṇa, who accompanied Him to the forest and kneaded His feet and other limbs along with Hanumān). (The deity presiding over) the ocean was terrified by the (very) display of His brows knit in anger excited by the (grievous) separation from His Darling (Sītā), which had been brought about by the mutilation of Śūrpaṇakhā (sister of Ravaṇa, the demon king of Laṅkā, so-called because she had nails as big as a winnowing basket, nay, whose nose and ears were chopped off by Lakṣmaṇa at the instance of Śrī Rāma, an incident which provoked Rāvaṇa to steal away Sītā in the absence of Śrī Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa). May that Lord of Kosala (Oudh) – who (subsequently) caused a bridge to be built across the sea and exterminated the host of wicked demons (including Rāvaṇa) even as wild fire consumes a (whole) forest – protect us! (4)
(1) त्यक्तं राज्यं येन स: = त्यक्तराज्यः (श्रीरामः) – He (Lord Śrī Rāma) by whom the kingship was abandoned.
(2) त्यक्त सुँ + राज्य सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)
(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘त्यक्त सुँ’ as well as ‘राज्य सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.
The adjective ‘त्यक्त सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.
Note: ‘त्यक्त सुँ + राज्य सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम् by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
(4) त्यक्तराज्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example श्रीरामः is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘त्यक्तराज्य’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।
The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।
(5) त्यक्तराज्य + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।
1. In Chapter One of the गीता can you spot a बहुव्रीहि: compound which – like the compound ‘त्यक्तराज्य’ – has ‘त्यक्त’ as its first member?
2. Which compound used in the verses is a अव्ययीभाव: compound?
3. What is the विग्रह: of the compound बद्धसेतुः used in the verses?
4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the form वैरूप्यात् used in the verses?
5. Which कृत् affix is used to construct the उपपद-समास: ‘अनुज’ (used as part of the compound हरीन्द्रानुजाभ्याम् in the verses)?
6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Only one who has studied grammar would know the answer to (of) this question.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who has studied grammar’ = अधीतं व्याकरणं येन स:।
1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः been used in the verses?
2. Can you spot the affix ‘श्यन्’ in the commentary?