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व्यर्थया fIs

Today we will look at the form व्यर्थया  fIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.23.25.

देवर्षिपितृभूतानि ज्ञातीन्बन्धूंश्च भागिनः । असंविभज्य चात्मानं यक्षवित्तः पतत्यधः ।। ११-२३-२४ ।।
व्यर्थयार्थेहया वित्तं प्रमत्तस्य वयो बलम् । कुशला येन सिध्यन्ति जरठः किं नु साधये ।। ११-२३-२५ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
ऋषयो मनुष्ययज्ञब्रह्मयज्ञयोर्देवताः । देवपितृभूतानि इतरेषु । ज्ञातयः सगोत्राः । बन्धवो विवाहादिना संबद्धास्तान् । अन्यांश्च भागिनो भागार्हान् । आत्मानं चासंविभज्यान्नादिभिरसंतर्प्य ।। २४ ।। एवं विमृश्यानुतप्यमान आह – व्यर्थयार्थेहया प्रमत्तस्य मम वित्तादि गतमिति शेषः । येन वित्तादिना कुशला विवेकिनः सिध्यन्ति मुच्यन्ते । जरठो वृद्धः ।। २५ ।।

Gita Press translation – He who guards his wealth like a Yakṣa, neither propitiates (by means of it) the gods, the Ṛṣis, the manes and (other) living beings, kinsmen, relatives and other claimants nor himself and goes down (to perdition) (24). My fortune, lifetime and strength, through which men of understanding achieve perfection, have (all) been carelessly spent, occupied as I have been with my fruitless endeavors in the cause of (amassing) wealth. What can I possibly accomplish now, as I have grown old? (25)

(1) वियुक्तार्थेन (वियुक्ता अर्थेन) = व्यर्था – fruitless (disjoint from purpose.)
Note: व्यर्था may also be derived as a बहुव्रीहि: compound as – विगतोऽर्थो यस्या: सा = व्यर्था।

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) वि + अर्थ टा । By सौनाग-वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-18) अवादयः क्रुष्‍टाद्यर्थे तृतीयया – Terms like ‘अव’ (from the प्रादि-गण:) when denoting a sense like ‘क्रुष्‍ट’ (‘announced’/’sounded’) invariably compound with a syntactically related पदम् ending in the instrumental case and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘वि’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सौनाग-वार्तिकम् ‘अवादयः क्रुष्‍टाद्यर्थे तृतीयया’ (which prescribes the compounding) the term अवादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘वि’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘वि + अर्थ टा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) वि + अर्थ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) व्यर्थ । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः – The gender of a तत्पुरुष: compound as well as a द्वन्द्व: compound is the same as the gender of the latter member of the compound. For a प्रादि-समास: (which belongs to the तत्पुरुष: class of compounds) though, as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः) द्विगुप्राप्तापन्नालम्पूर्वगतिसमासेषु प्रतिषेधो वाच्यः – The सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः does not apply to the following compounds which instead take their gender to match the gender of the विशेष्यम् (the term being qualified by the compound) –
i) a द्विगु-समास: (composed तद्धितार्थे विषये – in the context where the sense of a तद्धित: affix is to be expressed)
ii) a तत्पुरुष-समास: compound which has either ‘प्राप्त’, ‘आपन्न’ or ‘अलम्’ as its prior member
iii) a प्रादि-समास: composed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
Note: गतिसमासपदं गते: समासो येनेति बहुव्रीहिणा ‘कुगतिप्रादयः’ इति सूत्रपरम्। तच्चान्यत्र फलाभावात् प्रादिपरमेव। The mention of ‘गतिसमास’ in the above वार्तिकम् refers to those compounds constructed using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः (which prescribes गति-समासा:)। And since the वार्तिकम् is of no use in the case of those compounds which have ‘कु’ or a ‘गति’ term as the prior member, we have to conclude that the mention of ‘गतिसमास’ in the above वार्तिकम् refers to प्रादि-समास: only.

In the present example, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘व्यर्थ’ has to be used in the feminine since the विशेष्यम् (the term being qualified by the compound) is ‘अर्थेहा’ which is feminine.

Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘व्यर्था’ by adding the appropriate affix.

(6) व्यर्थ + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि ‘अज’ etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in the letter ‘अ’ get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

(7) व्यर्थ + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) व्यर्था । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम् ।

(7) व्यर्था + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् 

(8) व्यर्था + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) व्यर्थे + आ । By 7-3-105 आङि चापः – ‘आप्’ ending bases get the letter ‘ए’ as the substitute when followed by the affix ‘आङ्’ (‘टा’) or ‘ओस्’। Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter ‘आ’ of the base ‘व्यर्था’ is replaced by ‘ए’।

(10) व्यर्थया । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

Questions:

1. Can you spot a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

2. Which कृत् affix is used to form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ईहा’ (used in the compound अर्थेहया (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

3. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः apply in the form प्रमत्तस्य (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रमत्त’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-12 अर्हः been used in the commentary?

5. In the commentary can you find a word in which the affix ‘णिच्’ has been elided?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In the Aṣṭādhyāyī not even a single letter is useless (disjoint from purpose.)”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श्यन्’ in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘यक्’ in the form मुच्यन्ते used in the commentary?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Can you spot a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?
    Answer: The compound असंविभज्य is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound.

    न संविभज्य = असंविभज्य – not having propitiated.

    अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
    नञ्‌ + संविभज्य सुँ । By 2-2-6 नञ्‌ – The negation particle नञ्‌ (meaning ‘not’) optionally compounds with a सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।
    Note: The negation particle नञ्‌ belongs to the चादि-गणः (referenced in 1-4-57 चादयोऽसत्त्वे)। Hence it gets the designation निपात: by 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः and the designation अव्ययम् by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्।
    Note: तत्सादृश्यमभावश्च तदन्यत्वं तदल्पता । अप्राशस्त्यं विरोधश्च नञर्था: षट् प्रकीर्तिता: ॥ The negation particle नञ्‌ may convey any of the following senses –
    i) तत्सादृश्यम् – similarity to that which is being negated.
    ii) अभाव: – absence of that which is being negated.
    iii) तदन्यत्वम् – different from that which is being negated.
    iv) तदल्पता – smallness of that which is being negated.
    v) अप्राशस्त्यम् – non-praiseworthiness.
    vi) विरोध: – opposite of that which is being negated.
    In the present example the negation particle नञ्‌ conveys the sense of विरोध: – opposite of that which is being negated. Opposite of ‘having propitiated’.
    By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term नञ् gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-6 (which prescribes the compounding) the term नञ् ends in the nominative case. Hence the term नञ् is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.
    = न + संविभज्य सुँ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    Note: ‘न + संविभज्य सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = न + संविभज्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = असंविभज्य । By 6-3-73 नलोपो नञः।

    As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘असंविभज्य’ is a अव्ययम् since the latter member ‘संविभज्य’ of the compound is अव्ययम्।

    2. Which कृत् affix is used to form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ईहा’ (used in the compound अर्थेहया (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?
    Answer: The कृत् affix ‘’ is used to form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ईहा’ – derived from the verbal root √ईह् (ईहँ चेष्टायाम् १.७१९).

    Please see answer to question 4 in the following comment for derivation of feminine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ईहा’ – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/07/06/कृताकृतम्-nns/#comment-35388

    3. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः apply in the form प्रमत्तस्य (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रमत्त’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः does not apply in the form ‘प्रमत्त’ because of the निषेध-सूत्रम् 8-2-57 न ध्याख्यापॄमूर्च्छिमदाम् – When following the verbal root √ध्यै (ध्यै चिन्तायाम् १. १०५६) or √ख्या (ख्या प्रकथने २. ५५) or √पॄ (पॄ पालनपूरणयोः ३. ४) or √मूर्च्छ् (मूर्च्छाँ मोहनसमुच्छ्राययोः १. २४०) or √मद् (मदीँ हर्षे ४. १०५), the letter ‘त्’ of a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) is not replaced by the letter ‘न्’।

    Please refer to answer to question 2 in the following comment for derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मत्त’ – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/04/09/श्रीमदात्-m-ab-s/#comment-19611

    ‘मत्त’ is compounded with the उपसर्गः ‘प्र’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    प्र + मत्त = प्रमत्त। ‘प्रमत्त’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-12 अर्हः been used in the commentary?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-2-12 अर्हः has been used in the form भागार्हान् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भागार्ह’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्)।

    भागमर्हतीति भागार्हः – claimant (one who deserves a share)
    ‘अर्ह’ is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √अर्ह् (अर्हँ पूजायाम् १. ८४१).

    The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भागार्ह’ is derived as follows:
    भाग + ङस् + अर्ह् + अच् । By 3-2-12 अर्हः – The affix अच् is used after the verbal root √अर्ह् (अर्हँ पूजायाम् १. ८४१) when in composition with a पदम् which denotes the object (of the action.) Note: The affix अच् prescribed by 3-2-12 is an exception (अपवादः) to the affix अण् prescribed by 3-2-1 कर्मण्यण्।
    Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-2-12 अर्हः, the term कर्मणि (which comes down as अनुवृत्ति: from 3-2-1 कर्मण्यण्) ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence ‘भाग + ङस्’ (which is the object (कर्म-पदम्) of अर्हति) gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌। Note: The affix ‘ङस्’ is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति।
    = भाग + ङस् + अर्ह् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = भाग + ङस् + अर्ह ।
    We form a compound between ‘भाग + ङस्’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘अर्ह’ by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्।
    In the compound, ‘भाग + ङस्’ is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌। Note: Here ‘भाग + ङस्’ is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case ‘उपपदम्’) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’।
    ‘भाग + ङस् + अर्ह’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।
    = भाग + अर्ह । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = भागार्ह । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।

    The compound ‘भागार्ह’ is an adjective. In the masculine it declines like राम-शब्दः। द्वितीय़ा-बहुवचनम् is भागार्हान्।

    5. In the commentary can you find a word in which the affix ‘णिच्’ has been elided?
    Answer: The affix ‘णिच्’ has been elided in the form असंतर्प्य (= न संतर्प्य)। The form संतर्प्य is derived from the causative form of the verbal root तृप् (तृपँ प्रीणने ४. ९२) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘सम्’।

    तृप् + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च।
    = तृप् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = तर्पि । By 7-3-86 पुगन्‍तलघूपधस्‍य च, 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः।
    ‘तर्पि’ gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।

    तर्पि + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले।
    Note: Here the common agent of the actions (अ)संतर्प्य ((not) having propitiated) – as well as पतति (falls) is यक्षवित्तः (he who guards wealth like a Yakṣa). The earlier of the two actions is the action of propitiating which is denoted by ‘तर्पि’ and hence ‘तर्पि’ takes the affix ‘क्त्वा’।
    Note: अव्ययकृतो भावे (from महाभाष्यम्) – कृत् affixes (such as ‘क्‍त्‍वा’) having the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा are used to denote भाव: (action) – and not the agent (ref. 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌) of the action.
    = सम् + तर्पि + क्त्वा । ‘तर्पि + क्त्वा’ is compounded with ‘सम्’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    = सम् + तर्पि + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌, 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य।
    Note: The सूत्रम् 7-1-37 contains the exclusion अनञ्पूर्वे (provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’)। In the present example the final compound form असन्तर्प्य/असंतर्प्य does have the अव्‍ययम् ‘नञ्’ as the prior member. Then how can we apply 7-1-37 here? The answer is that at the time the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) takes place, the prior member of the compound is ‘सम्’ (and not ‘नञ्’)। Therefore, the exclusion अनञ्पूर्वे cannot prevent 7-1-37 from applying. After the compound ’सन्तर्प्य/संतर्प्य’ is formed, further compounding is done (as shown below) with the अव्ययम् ‘नञ्’। At this stage the affix ‘क्त्वा’ is not present and hence the exclusion अनञ्पूर्वे (which only comes in to force when substituting ‘ल्यप्’ in place of ‘क्त्वा’) has no relevance.
    Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)
    = सम् + तर्पि + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    Note: Since the आर्धधातुकम् affix ‘य’ does not begin with a वल् letter it cannot take the augment ‘इट्’ (by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।) This allows 6-4-51 to apply in the next step.
    = सम् तर्प् + य । By 6-4-51 णेरनिटि – The affix ‘णि’ is elided when followed by an आर्धधातुकम् affix which does not have the augment इट्।
    = संतर्प्य । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः।
    = सन्तर्प्य/संतर्प्य । By 8-4-59 वा पदान्तस्य।
    ’सन्तर्प्य/संतर्प्य’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः with the help of 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ।

    The compound असन्तर्प्य/असंतर्प्य is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound.
    न सन्तर्प्य/संतर्प्य = असन्तर्प्य/असंतर्प्य – Not having propitiated.
    The derivation of the नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘असन्तर्प्य/असंतर्प्य’ is similar to the derivation of the नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound ‘असंविभज्य’ as shown in answer 1 above in this comment.
    As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘असन्तर्प्य/असंतर्प्य’ is a अव्ययम् since the latter member ‘सन्तर्प्य/संतर्प्य’ of the compound is अव्ययम्।
    असन्तर्प्य/असंतर्प्य + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।
    = असन्तर्प्य/असंतर्प्य । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “In the Aṣṭādhyāyī not even a single letter is useless (disjoint from purpose.)”
    Answer: अष्टाध्याय्याम् न एकम् अपि अक्षरम् व्यर्थम् अस्ति = अष्टाध्याय्यां नैकमप्यक्षरं व्यर्थमस्ति।

    Easy questions:
    1. Can you spot the affix ‘श्यन्’ in the verses?
    Answer: The affix ‘श्यन्’ occurs in the form सिध्यन्ति – derived from the verbal root √सिध् (षिधुँ संराद्धौ ४. ८९).

    The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग:, प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।
    सिध् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्।
    = सिध् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = सिध् + झि । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्।
    = सिध् + श्यन् + झि । By 3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन् – The affix ‘श्यन्’ is placed after the verbal roots belonging to the दिवादि-गणः, when followed by a सार्वधातुकम् affix that is used signifying the agent. Note: Since the सार्वधातुकम् affix ‘श्यन्’ is अपित् (does not have the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्) by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित् it behaves ङिद्वत् – as if it has the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत्। This allows 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च to prevent 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च from applying.
    = सिध् + य + झि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = सिध् + य + अन्ति । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः।
    = सिध्यन्ति । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे।

    2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘यक्’ in the form मुच्यन्ते used in the commentary?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-1-67 सार्वधातुके यक् prescribes the affix यक् in the form मुच्यन्ते – derived from the verbal root √मुच् (मुचॢँ मोक्षणे (मोचने) ६. १६६).

    Please see answer to easy question 1 in the following comment for derivation of the form मुच्यन्ते – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/05/16/जरा-fns/#comment-21912

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