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मधुरभाषिणी fNs

Today we will look at the form मधुरभाषिणी fNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.33.20.

इति ब्रुवाणा सरमा राक्षसी सीतया सह | सर्वोद्योगेन सैन्यानां शब्दं शुश्राव भैरवम् || ६-३३-१९ ||
दण्डनिर्घातवादिन्याः श्रुत्वा भेर्या महास्वनम् | उवाच सरमा सीतामिदं मधुरभाषिणी || ६-३३-२० ||
संनाहजननी ह्येषा भैरवा भीरु भेरिका | भेरीनादं च गम्भीरं शृणु तोयदनिःस्वनम् || ६-३३-२१ ||
कल्प्यन्ते मत्तमातङ्गा युज्यन्ते रथवाजिनः | दृश्यन्ते तुरगारूढाः प्रासहस्ताः सहस्रशः || ६-३३-२२ ||

Gita Press translation – While talking thus with Sītā, the ogress Saramā heard the terrible noise of troops engaged in every effort (for war) (19). Hearing the crash of kettledrums sounding when beaten with a stick, Saramā, who had a sweet tongue, spoke to Sītā as follows: – (20) “Indeed here is a fearful kettledrum, producing a sound signifying preparations for war, being beaten, O timid lady! Also hear the deep-sounding crash of kettledrums, which resembles the rumbling of clouds (21). Elephants in rut are being decorated and horses are being yoked to the chariots. (Nay) carrying spears in their hands, horsemen are seen in their thousands (22)”.

मधुरं भाषते तच्छीला = मधुरभाषिणी।

“भाषिन्” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √भाष् (भाषँ व्यक्तायां वाचि १. ६९६).

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “मधुरभाषिणी” is derived as follows:

(1) मधुर + ङस् + भाष् + णिनिँ । By 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये – When in composition with a सुबन्तं पदम् (a पदम् which ends in a सुँप् affix) which does not denote a class/genus, a verbal root may take the affix “णिनिँ” to express the meaning of a habitual/natural action.

Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-2-78, the term सुपि ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “मधुर + ङस्” gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌

Note: The affix “ङस्” is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – To express the agent or the object (of an action), a nominal stem takes a sixth case affix when the nominal stem is used in conjunction with a term which ends in a कृत् affix. (This is what is called as कृद्योगे षष्ठी)।

(2) मधुर + ङस् + भाष् + इन् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

We form a compound between “मधुर ङस्” (which is the उपपदम्) and “भाषिन्” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “मधुर ङस्”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “भाषिन्”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “मधुर ङस्” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “मधुर ङस्” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।
“मधुर ङस् + भाषिन्” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(3) मधुर + भाषिन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= मधुरभाषिन् ।

Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “मधुरभाषिणी”

(4) मधुरभाषिन् + ङीप् । By 4-1-5 ऋन्नेभ्यो ङीप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि that end in a ऋकारः or नकारः get the ङीप् affix in the feminine gender.

(5) मधुरभाषिन् + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) मधुरभाषिणी । By 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि – The letter “न्” is replaced by “ण्” when either “र्” or “ष्” precedes, even if intervened by a letter of the अट्-प्रत्याहार: or by a letter of the क-वर्ग: or प-वर्गः or the term “आङ्” or “नुँम्” (अनुस्वारः) either singly or in any combination.

The विवक्षा is स्त्रीलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(7) मधुरभाषिणी + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(8) मधुरभाषिणी + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) मधुरभाषिणी । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix “सुँ”, “ति” or “सि” is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix “ङी” or “आप्”।

Questions:

1. In which two words in the last five verses of Chapter Seventeen of the गीता has the affix “णिनिँ” been used?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये (used in step 1), the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says – ताच्छील्ये किम्? उष्णं भुङ्क्ते कदाचित्। Please explain.

3. Can you recall another सूत्रम् (which we have studied) – besides 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये – by which पाणिनि: prescribes the affix “णिनिँ”?

4. In the verses, can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् in which the affix “क” has been used?

5. In which तिङन्तं पदम् in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-4-51 णेरनिटि been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One who habitually speaks the truth is never afraid.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-105 आङि चापः been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the प्रातिपदिकम् “एतद्” used in the verses?


1 Comment

  1. 1. In which two words in the last five verses of Chapter Seventeen of the गीता has the affix “णिनिँ” been used?
    Answer: The affix “णिनिँ” has been used in the derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘ब्रह्मवादिन्’ of the form ब्रह्मवादिनाम्‌ (पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्) and in the derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मोक्षकाङ्क्षिन्’ of the form मोक्षकाङ्क्षिभिः (पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-बहुवचनम्)।
    तस्मादोमित्युदाहृत्य यज्ञदानतपःक्रियाः |
    प्रवर्तन्ते विधानोक्ताः सततं ब्रह्मवादिनाम्‌ || 17-24||
    तदित्यनभिसन्धाय फलं यज्ञतपःक्रियाः |
    दानक्रियाश्च विविधाः क्रियन्ते मोक्षकाङ्क्षिभिः || 17-25||

    ब्रह्म वदति तच्छीलः = ब्रह्मवादी। The verbal root here is √वद् (वदँ व्यक्तायां वाचि १. ११६४).

    मोक्षं काङ्क्षति तच्छीलः = मोक्षकाङ्क्षी। The verbal root here is √काङ्क्ष् (काक्षिँ काङ्क्षायाम् १. ७६०).

    The derivation of ‘ब्रह्मवादिन्’ and ‘मोक्षकाङ्क्षिन्’ is similar to the derivation of ‘मधुरभाषिन्’ as shown in the post. In the case of ‘ब्रह्मवादिन्’ we have to use the सूत्रम् 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः for the वृद्धि: substitution in place of the अकार: of ‘वद्’।

    Note: The exclusion of ‘अजातौ’ (in the सूत्रम् 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये) does not prevent the compound ब्रह्मवादी because here ब्रह्म means वेद: and not the ब्राह्मणजाति:।
    Note: ब्रह्मवादी could also be used in the sense of तत्साधुकारिणि – meaning one who is skilled in doing the action denoted by the verbal root. Hence the meaning of ब्रह्मवादी could also be ‘one who is skilled at expounding the Veda.’ This meaning is allowed by the special वार्तिकम् (under 3-2-78) – बह्मणि वद: – The affix ‘णिनिँ’ may be used following the verbal root √वद् (वदँ व्यक्तायां वाचि १. ११६४) when in composition with ‘ब्रह्मन्’, to denote an agent who is skilled at doing the action (even though he may not be doing it habitually.)

    2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये (used in step 1), the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says – ताच्छील्ये किम्? उष्णं भुङ्क्ते कदाचित्। Please explain.
    Answer: When the intent is to merely express an action and not habitual action, the affix ‘णिनिँ’ is not applied. Hence, in the counter-example, ‘उष्णं भुङ्क्ते कदाचित्’ – “a person eats hot food occasionally”, we cannot use the affix ‘णिनिँ’ by 3-2-78.

    3. Can you recall another सूत्रम् (which we have studied) – besides 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये – by which पाणिनि: prescribes the affix “णिनिँ”?
    Answer: पाणिनि: also prescribes the affix “णिनिँ” in the सूत्रम् 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः – The affix “ल्यु” may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by “नन्दि”; the affix “णिनिँ” may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by “ग्रहि”; and the affix “अच्” may be used after a verbal root belonging to the group headed by “पच्”।

    4. In the verses, can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् in which the affix “क” has been used?
    Answer: The affix ‘क’ has been used in the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तोयद’ in the compound तोयदनिःस्वनम्।

    तोयं ददातीति तोयदः।

    The derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तोयद’ is similar to the derivation ‘धनद’ as shown in the following post –
    http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/10/08/धनदम्-mas/

    5. In which तिङन्तं पदम् in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-4-51 णेरनिटि been used?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-51 णेरनिटि has been used in the form कल्प्यन्ते derived from √कॢप् (कृपूँ सामर्थ्ये १. ८६६).
    The ending ऊकार: of “कृपूँ” gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

    The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्मणि प्रयोग: (हेतुमति), प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्।
    कृप् + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च।
    = कृप् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = कर्पि । By 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च, 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः।
    “कर्पि” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।

    कर्पि + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्।
    = कर्पि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = कर्पि + झ । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-13 भावकर्मणोः।
    = कर्पि + झे । By 3-4-79 टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे।
    = कर्पि + यक् + झे । By 3-1-67 सार्वधातुके यक्। The affix ‘यक्’ has the आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।
    = कर्पि + य + झे । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = कर्प् + य + झे । By 6-4-51 णेरनिटि – The “णि”-प्रत्यय: is elided when followed by an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: which does not have the augment इट्। Note: The affix ‘यक्’ cannot take the augment ‘इट्’ (by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः) because the beginning यकार: of ‘यक्’ does not belong to the प्रत्याहार: ‘वल्’।
    = कर्प् + य + अन्ते । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः।
    = कर्प्यन्ते । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे।
    = कल्प्यन्ते । By 8-2-18 कृपो रो लः, the रेफः belonging to the verbal root √कृप् (कृपूँ सामर्थ्ये १. ८६६) takes लकारः as a substitute.

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “One who habitually speaks the truth is never afraid.”
    Answer: सत्यवादी न कदा अपि बिभेति = सत्यवादी न कदापि बिभेति।

    Easy questions:

    1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-105 आङि चापः been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-3-105 आङि चापः has been used in the form सीतया (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “सीता”, तृतीया-एकवचनम्।)
    For the details of the derivation, please see answer to easy question 1 in the following comment – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/10/25/प्रियंवद-mvs/#comment-5727

    2. Can you spot the प्रातिपदिकम् “एतद्” used in the verses?
    Answer: The प्रातिपदिकम् “एतद्” has been used in the verses in the form एषा (स्त्रीलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।)
    ‘एतद्’ gets सर्वनाम-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-27 सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि ।
    The विवक्षा here is स्त्रीलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।
    एतद् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
    = एतद् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = एत अ + स् । By 7-2-102 त्यदादीनाम:, 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य।
    = एत + स् । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे।
    = एत + टाप् + स् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌।
    = एत + आ + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = एता + स् । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।
    = एसा + स् । By 7-2-106 तदोः सः सावनन्त्ययोः।
    = एसा । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल्।
    = एषा । By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययोः।

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