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मधुरभाषिणी fNs

Today we will look at the form मधुरभाषिणी fNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.33.20.

इति ब्रुवाणा सरमा राक्षसी सीतया सह | सर्वोद्योगेन सैन्यानां शब्दं शुश्राव भैरवम् || ६-३३-१९ ||
दण्डनिर्घातवादिन्याः श्रुत्वा भेर्या महास्वनम् | उवाच सरमा सीतामिदं मधुरभाषिणी || ६-३३-२० ||
संनाहजननी ह्येषा भैरवा भीरु भेरिका | भेरीनादं च गम्भीरं शृणु तोयदनिःस्वनम् || ६-३३-२१ ||
कल्प्यन्ते मत्तमातङ्गा युज्यन्ते रथवाजिनः | दृश्यन्ते तुरगारूढाः प्रासहस्ताः सहस्रशः || ६-३३-२२ ||

Gita Press translation – While talking thus with Sītā, the ogress Saramā heard the terrible noise of troops engaged in every effort (for war) (19). Hearing the crash of kettledrums sounding when beaten with a stick, Saramā, who had a sweet tongue, spoke to Sītā as follows: – (20) “Indeed here is a fearful kettledrum, producing a sound signifying preparations for war, being beaten, O timid lady! Also hear the deep-sounding crash of kettledrums, which resembles the rumbling of clouds (21). Elephants in rut are being decorated and horses are being yoked to the chariots. (Nay) carrying spears in their hands, horsemen are seen in their thousands (22)”.

मधुरं भाषते तच्छीला = मधुरभाषिणी।

“भाषिन्” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √भाष् (भाषँ व्यक्तायां वाचि १. ६९६).

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “मधुरभाषिणी” is derived as follows:

(1) मधुर + ङस् + भाष् + णिनिँ । By 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये – When in composition with a सुबन्तं पदम् (a पदम् which ends in a सुँप् affix) which does not denote a class/genus, a verbal root may take the affix “णिनिँ” to express the meaning of a habitual/natural action.

Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-2-78, the term सुपि ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “मधुर + ङस्” gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌

Note: The affix “ङस्” is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – To express the agent or the object (of an action), a nominal stem takes a sixth case affix when the nominal stem is used in conjunction with a term which ends in a कृत् affix. (This is what is called as कृद्योगे षष्ठी)।

(2) मधुर + ङस् + भाष् + इन् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

We form a compound between “मधुर ङस्” (which is the उपपदम्) and “भाषिन्” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “मधुर ङस्”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “भाषिन्”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “मधुर ङस्” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “मधुर ङस्” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।
“मधुर ङस् + भाषिन्” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(3) मधुर + भाषिन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= मधुरभाषिन् ।

Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “मधुरभाषिणी”

(4) मधुरभाषिन् + ङीप् । By 4-1-5 ऋन्नेभ्यो ङीप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि that end in a ऋकारः or नकारः get the ङीप् affix in the feminine gender.

(5) मधुरभाषिन् + ई । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) मधुरभाषिणी । By 8-4-2 अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेऽपि – The letter “न्” is replaced by “ण्” when either “र्” or “ष्” precedes, even if intervened by a letter of the अट्-प्रत्याहार: or by a letter of the क-वर्ग: or प-वर्गः or the term “आङ्” or “नुँम्” (अनुस्वारः) either singly or in any combination.

The विवक्षा is स्त्रीलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(7) मधुरभाषिणी + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(8) मधुरभाषिणी + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) मधुरभाषिणी । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix “सुँ”, “ति” or “सि” is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix “ङी” or “आप्”।


1. In which two words in the last five verses of Chapter Seventeen of the गीता has the affix “णिनिँ” been used?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये (used in step 1), the सिद्धान्त-कौमुदी says – ताच्छील्ये किम्? उष्णं भुङ्क्ते कदाचित्। Please explain.

3. Can you recall another सूत्रम् (which we have studied) – besides 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये – by which पाणिनि: prescribes the affix “णिनिँ”?

4. In the verses, can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् in which the affix “क” has been used?

5. In which तिङन्तं पदम् in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-4-51 णेरनिटि been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One who habitually speaks the truth is never afraid.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-105 आङि चापः been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the प्रातिपदिकम् “एतद्” used in the verses?

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