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शूरमानी mNs

Today we will look at the form शूरमानी mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3.21.17.

मयि ते यद्यनुक्रोशो यदि रक्षःसु तेषु च । रामेण यदि शक्तिस्ते तेजो वास्ति निशाचर ।। ३-२१-१४ ।।
दण्डकारण्यनिलयं जहि राक्षसकण्टकम् । यदि रामममित्रघ्नं न त्वमद्य वधिष्यसि ।। ३-२१-१५ ।।
तव चैवाग्रतः प्राणांस्त्यक्ष्यामि निरपत्रपा । बुद्ध्याहमनुपश्यामि न त्वं रामस्य संयुगे ।। ३-२१-१६ ।।
स्थातुं प्रतिमुखे शक्तः सबलोऽपि महारणे । शूरमानी न शूरस्त्वं मिथ्यारोपितविक्रमः ।। ३-२१-१७ ।।

Gita Press translation – If you have compassion for me and if you have mercy for those ogres, (nay) if you have power or prowess to contend with Rāma, O prowler of the night, make short work of that thorn in the side of the ogres, who has taken up his abode in the Daṇḍaka forest. If, however, you do not kill Rāma, the slayer of his foes, today, I shall give up the ghost, (already) divested as I am of my shame (in the shape of my nose and ears). I vividly see with (the eye of) my intuition that, (even) though followed by your army on the battlefield, you cannot stand in front of Rāma in a major combat. (Even) though you account yourself to be brave, you are not (really) valiant; you have falsely assumed that you are brave. (14-17)

शूरमात्मानं मन्यते = शूरमानी।

“मानिन्” is a कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् (participle form) derived from the verbal root √मन् (मनँ ज्ञाने ४. ७३).

The (compound) प्रातिपदिकम् “शूरमानी” is derived as follows:

(1) शूर + ङस् + मन् + णिनिँ । By 3-2-83 आत्ममाने खश्च – When in composition with a सुबन्तं पदम् (a पदम् which ends in a सुँप् affix), the verbal root √मन् (मनँ ज्ञाने ४. ७३) may take the the affix “खश्” – as well as the affix “णिनिँ” – provided the agent of the verbal root is also its object.

Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-2-83, the term सुपि (which comes as अनुवृत्ति: in to the सूत्रम् 3-2-83 from the सूत्रम् 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये) ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence “शूर + ङस्” gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌

Note: The affix “ङस्” is used here as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति – To express the agent or the object (of an action), a nominal stem takes a sixth case affix when the nominal stem is used in conjunction with a term which ends in a कृत् affix. (This is what is called as कृद्योगे षष्ठी)।

(2) शूर + ङस् + मन् + इन् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) शूर + ङस् + मान् + इन् । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः – A penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is a ञित् or a णित्।

We form a compound between “शूर ङस्” (which is the उपपदम्) and “मानिन्” by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् – A सुबन्तम् (term ending in a सुँप् affix) having the designation “उपपद” (in this case “शूर ङस्”) invariably compounds with a syntactically related term (in this case “मानिन्”) as long as the compound does not end in a तिङ् affix.

In the compound, “शूर ङस्” is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation “उपसर्जन” should be placed in the prior position. Note: Here “शूर ङस्” is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case “उपपदम्”) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation “उपसर्जन”।
“शूर ङस् + मानिन्” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) शूर + मानिन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= शूरमानिन् ।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(5) शूरमानिन् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) शूरमानिन् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) शूरमानीन् + स् । By 6-4-13 सौ च – The penultimate letter of terms ending in “इन्”, “हन्”, “पूषन्” and “अर्यमन्” is lengthened when the सुँ-प्रत्यय: – which is not सम्बुद्धि: – follows.

(8) शूरमानीन् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल्। “शूरमानीन्” gets the पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्

(9) शूरमानी । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending नकार: of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।


1. What would be the final form in this example if the affix “खश्” were to be used (instead of “णिनिँ”)?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 3-2-83 आत्ममाने खश्च (used in step 1) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – आत्ममाने किम्? दर्शनीयमानी देवदत्तो यज्ञदत्तस्य।

3. Can you spot an affix “ट” in the verses?

4. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 3-2-5 तुन्दशोकयोः परिमृजापनुदोः) मूलविभुजादिभ्यः कः been used in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“You think yourself to be handsome, but you’re not (really) handsome.” Use the प्रातिपदिकम् “दर्शनीय” for “handsome (fit to be seen.)” For this sentence use a similar construction as in the verse.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I consider (my) father to be a scholar.” Use षष्ठी विभक्ति: with “father.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the substitution “पश्य” in अनुपश्यामि?

2. Looking at that form बुद्ध्या (तृतीया-एकवचनम्) how can we tell that the प्रातिपदिकम् “बुद्धि” is feminine?

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