Home » 2012 » November » 20

Daily Archives: November 20, 2012

उक्तवान् mNs

Today we will look at the form उक्तवान् mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 7.11.38.

दीयतां नगरी लङ्का पूर्वं रक्षोगणोषिता । मयात्र यदनुष्ठेयं तन्ममाचक्ष्व सुव्रत ।। ७-११-३६ ।।
ब्रह्मर्षिस्त्वेवमुक्तोऽसौ विश्रवा मुनिपुङ्गवः । प्राञ्जलिं धनदं प्राह शृणु पुत्र वचो मम ।। ७-११-३७ ।।
दशग्रीवो महाबाहुरुक्तवान्मम संनिधौ । मया निर्भर्त्सितश्चासीद्बहुशोक्तः सुदुर्मतिः ।। ७-११-३८ ।।

Gita Press translation – Let Laṅkā, which was previously occupied by the Rākṣasas, be given back to me. Please tell me, O pious one, what I should do in this connection.” (35-36) Being addressed thus, Viśravā, the Brahmarṣi, the best of sages, told the lord of wealth, who was standing with joined palms, My son, listen to my words. (37) Daśagrīva, the mighty-armed, said the same thing in my presence also. I rebuked him and exhorted that highly evil-minded fellow in several ways.(38)

The प्रातिपदिकम् “उक्तवत्” is derived from the verbal root √वच् (वचँ परिभाषणे २. ५८).

(1) वच् + क्तवतुँ । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref. 1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्तवतुँ’ is used कर्तरि (to denote the agent) as per 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌ – The affixes designated as कृत् are used to denote the agent.

(2) वच् + तवत् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The affix “क्तवतुँ” is a कित्। This allows 6-1-15 वचिस्वपियजादीनां किति to apply in the next step. Note: Here 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः

(3) उ अ च् + तवत् । By 6-1-15 वचिस्वपियजादीनां किति – The verbal roots √वच् (वचँ परिभाषणे २. ५८), √स्वप् (ञिष्वपँ शये २. ६३) and also the nine verbal roots beginning with √यज् (यजँ देवपूजासङ्गतिकरणदानेषु १. ११५७) take सम्प्रसारणम् (ref. 1-1-45) when followed by an affix which is a कित्।

(4) उच् + तवत् । By 6-1-108 सम्प्रसारणाच्च – When a सम्प्रसारणम् is followed by a अच् (vowel), there is a single replacement (in place of both the सम्प्रसारणम् and the following अच्) of the prior letter (the सम्प्रसारणम्)।

(5) उक् + तवत् । By 8-2-30 चोः कुः – The consonants of the च-वर्ग: (च्, छ्, ज्, झ्, ञ्) get the consonants of the क-वर्ग: (क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ्) as a replacement when they occur at the end of a पदम् or when they are followed by a झल् letter.

“उक्तवत्” gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(6) उक्तवत् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
Note: “उक्तवत्” ends in the affix “क्तवतुँ”। Thus it ends in “अतुँ” and is also उगित् (since the उकार: in “क्तवतुँ” is a इत्)। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-14 as well as the सूत्रम् 7-1-70 to apply below.

(7) उक्तवत् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) उक्तवात् + स् । By 6-4-14 अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः – When the “सुँ” affix which is not सम्बुद्धिः follows, a base that ends in “अतुँ” or a base that ends in “अस्” which is not of a verbal root, has its penultimate letter elongated.

(9) उक्तवा नुँम् त् + स् । By 7-1-70 उगिदचां सर्वनामस्थानेऽधातोः – A non-verbal base with an उक् (“उ”, “ऋ”, “ऌ”) as a marker and the verbal base “अञ्चुँ” whose नकारः has taken elision takes the नुँम् augment when followed by a सर्वनामस्थानम् affix. Note: The प्रत्यय: “स्” has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य

(10) उक्तवा न् त् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(11) उक्तवान्त् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix “सुँ”, “ति” or “सि” is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix “ङी” or “आप्”। Using 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् “उक्तवान्त्” gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम्

(12) उक्तवान् । By 8-2-23 संयोगान्तस्य लोपः। As per 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य, only the ending letter (तकार:) of the पदम् takes लोपः।
Note: After this, 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य does not apply because of 8-2-1 पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्।


1. Where has the affix ‘क्तवतुँ’ (used in step 1) been used for the last time in the गीता?

2. Where else (besides 3-2-102) in the अष्टाध्यायी does the सूत्रम् ‘निष्ठा’ occur?

3. Can you spot an affix ‘क’ in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the ईकारादेश: in the form दीयताम्?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I did not say anything.”

Advanced question:

1. Derive the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उषित’ (feminine ‘उषिता’ used in the verses as part of the compound रक्षोगणोषिता) from the verbal root √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०) by adding the affix ‘क्त’। You will need to use the following सूत्रम् (which we have not studied in the class):
7-2-52 वसतिक्षुधोरिट् – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ or a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) always takes the augment इट् when following the verbal root √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०) or √क्षुध् (क्षुधँ बुभुक्षायाम् ४. ८७).

Easy questions:

1. Why does the सूत्रम् 6-4-14 अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः (which is an earlier सूत्रम् in the अष्टाध्यायी compared to 7-1-70) apply (in step eight) before 7-1-70 उगिदचां सर्वनामस्थानेऽधातोः (in step nine)?

2.Where else (besides in उक्तवान्) has the सूत्रम् 6-4-14 अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः been used in the verses?

Recent Posts

November 2012