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कृत्तः mNs

Today we will look at the form कृत्तः mNs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.103.3.

तं तु वज्रमिवोत्सृष्टमाहवे दानवारिणा । वाग्वज्रं भरतेनोक्तममनोज्ञं परन्तपः ।। २-१०३-२ ।।
प्रगृह्य रामो बाहू वै पुष्पिताङ्ग इव द्रुमः । वने परशुना कृत्तस्तथा भुवि पपात ह ।। २-१०३-३ ।।
तथा हि पतितं रामं जगत्यां जगतीपतिम् । कूलघातपरिश्रान्तं प्रसुप्तमिव कुञ्जरम् ।। २-१०३-४ ।।
भ्रातरस्ते महेष्वासं सर्वतः शोककर्शितम् । रुदन्तः सह वैदेह्या सिषिचुः सलिलेन वै ।। २-१०३-५ ।।

Gita Press translation – Hearing the aforesaid unpleasant and heart-rending news broken by Bharata, which was (piercing) like a thunderbolt discharged by Indra (the enemy of demons) on a field of battle, and raising his arms, Śrī Rāma, the scorcher of his enemies, for his part actually sank to the ground precisely like a tree with boughs full of blossom felled down with an axe in a forest; so it is said (2-3). Weeping with Sītā (a princess of the Videha territory), his celebrated brothers (Bharata, Lakṣmaṇa and Śatrughna) promptly sprinkled all over with water Śrī Rāma, the ruler of the earth and the wielder of a mighty bow, fallen on the ground, as aforesaid, blasted with grief, like an elephant exhausted by striking (with his tusks) against a river bank and lying fast asleep (4-5).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “कृत्त” is derived from the verbal root √कृत् (कृतीँ छेदने ६. १७१). The ending ईकार: of ‘कृतीँ’ gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Hence this verbal root is a ईदित्। This allows 7-2-14 श्वीदितो निष्ठायाम् to prevent the augment ‘इट्’ in step 2.

(1) कृत् + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्मणि (to denote the object) here as per 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः – The affixes having the designation “कृत्य”, the affix “क्त” and the affixes that have the sense of “खल्” (ref: 3-3-126) are only used to denote the action (भावः) or the object (कर्म)।

(2) कृत् + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: By 7-2-14 श्वीदितो निष्ठायाम् – When following the verbal root √श्वि (टुओँश्वि गतिवृद्ध्योः १. ११६५) or any verbal root which has ईकार: as a इत्, a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) does not take the augment इट्। 7-2-14 श्वीदितो निष्ठायाम् prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः। The affix “क्त” is a कित्। Hence 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च from applying.

“कृत्त” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is पुंलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(3) कृत्त + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(4) कृत्त + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(5) कृत्तः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. In the last verse of which chapter of the गीता has the सूत्रम् 7-2-14 श्वीदितो निष्ठायाम् (used in step 2) been used?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-2-14 श्वीदितो निष्ठायाम्, the काशिका says – निष्ठायामित्यधिकारः ‘आर्धधातुकस्य इड्वलादेः’ (७-२-३५) इति यावत्। Please explain.

3. Can you spot an augment ‘मुँम्’ in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the सम्प्रसारणम् in the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उक्त’ as well as ‘सुप्त’?

5. The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सृष्ट’ (used in the verses as part of the compound उत्सृष्टम्) is derived from the verbal root √सृज् (सृजँ विसर्गे ४. ७५, ६. १५०)। Can you recall two सूत्रे in which पाणिनि: specifically mentions this verbal root? Out of the two, which one has been used in ‘सृष्ट’?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I did not see the man who felled this tree.” Use the affix ‘क्तवतुँ’ to express the past tense.

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the substitution ‘ना’ in the word परशुना?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः been used in the verses?

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