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पिपासया fIs

Today we will look at the form पिपासया fIs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.21.14.

क्षुत्तृट्श्रमो गात्रपरिभ्रमश्च दैन्यं क्लमः शोकविषादमोहाः । सर्वे निवृत्ताः कृपणस्य जन्तोर्जिजीविषोर्जीवजलार्पणान्मे ॥ ९-२१-१३ ॥
इति प्रभाष्य पानीयं म्रियमाणः पिपासया । पुल्कसायाददाद्धीरो निसर्गकरुणो नृपः ॥ ९-२१-१४ ॥

ननु दुःखं किमिति प्रार्थयसे । परदुःखनिवृत्त्यैव मम सर्वदुःखनिवृत्तिरित्याह – क्षुत्तृडिति । कृपणस्य जन्तोर्जीवनहेतोर्जलस्यार्पणान्मे सर्वे क्षुत्तृडादयो निवृत्ताः ॥ १३ ॥ इत्येवं प्रभाष्य ॥ १४ ॥

Gita Press translation – My exhaustion due to hunger and thirst, the weariness of my limbs, low spirits, languor, grief, despondency and infatuation have all disappeared on account of my giving away the water, which meant life to this miserable fellow, anxious to survive (13). Having expressed such noble sentiments, the king, who was full of fortitude and merciful by nature, gave the water to the Cāṇḍāla, though himself dying of thirst (14).

The सन्नन्त-धातुः “पिपास” is derived from √पा (पा पाने १. १०७४).

पा + सन् । As per 3-1-7 धातोः कर्मणः समानकर्तृकादिच्छायां वा – In order to express wish/desire, the affix सन् is optionally prescribed after a verbal root which underlies the object of and shares the same agent with the verbal root √इष् (इषुँ इच्छायाम् ६. ७८).

= पा + स । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ stops 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः

= पास् पास । By 6-1-9 सन्यङोः – There is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of a verbal root ending in the affix सन्/यङ् which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

= पा पास । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः – Of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

= प पास । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः, the अच् (vowel) of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः) is substituted by a short vowel.

= पिपास । By 7-4-79 सन्यतः – When the affix “सन्” follows, a अकारः belonging to a reduplicate (अभ्यासः) is replaced by a इकारः।

“पिपास” has धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

Now we form the feminine प्रातिपदिकम् “पिपासा” from the सन्नन्त-धातुः “पिपास”।

पिपास + अ । By 3-3-102 अ प्रत्ययात्‌ – In order to form a feminine noun, the affix “अ” is used following a verbal root ending in an affix. Note: A verbal root ending in an affix refers to a verbal root which gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।
Note: The affix “अ” gets आर्धधातक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः

= पिपास् + अ । By 6-4-48 अतो लोपः – When an आर्धधातुकम् affix follows, the अकारः at the end of a अङ्गम् is elided if the अङ्गम् ends in a अकार: at the time when the आर्धधातुकम् affix is prescribed.

= पिपास । Note: Since the affix “अ” has the कृत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्, “पिपास” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च

= पिपास + टाप् । By 4-1-4 अजाद्यतष्टाप्‌ – The प्रातिपदिकानि “अज” etc. and प्रातिपदिकानि ending in अकारः get the टाप् affix in the feminine gender.

= पिपास + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

= पिपासा । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The विवक्षा is तृतीया-एकवचनम्।

(1) पिपासा + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(2) पिपासा + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) पिपासे + आ । By 7-3-105 आङि चाऽऽपः – ”आप्” ending bases get एकारः as the substitute when followed by the affix “आङ्” (“टा”) or “ओस्”।

(4) पिपासया । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः


1. Where has the affix सन् been used in last five verses of Chapter 6?

2. The सूत्रम् 3-3-102 अ प्रत्ययात्‌ (used in this example) is a अपवादः for which सूत्रम्?

3. Which गणसूत्रम् prescribes the use of आत्मनेपदम् in the form प्रार्थयसे?

4. Besides in पिपासया, where else has the affix सन् been used in the verses?

5. Can you spot a “श्लु” elision in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“With the desire to drink water, all the deer came to the bank of the river.” Use द्वितीया-विभक्तिः with “water” and use a लुँङ् form of the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) with the उपसर्गः “आङ्” for “to come.”

Easy Questions:

1. Can you spot the affix “टा” in the commentary?

2. Which सूत्रम् is used for the substitution “य” in the form पुल्कसाय?

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