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अयूयुजन् 3Ap-लुँङ्

Today we will look at the form अयूयुजन् 3Ap-लुँङ् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.13.22.

किं वांहो वेन उद्दिश्य ब्रह्मदण्डमयूयुजन् । दण्डव्रतधरे राज्ञि मुनयो धर्मकोविदाः ॥ ४-१३-२२ ॥
नावध्येयः प्रजापालः प्रजाभिरघवानपि । यदसौ लोकपालानां बिभर्त्योजः स्वतेजसा ॥ ४-१३-२३ ॥

किंवा अंहः अपराधं वेने उद्दिश्य आलक्ष्य ॥ २२ ॥ यतोऽयमधर्म इत्याह । नावध्येयोऽवज्ञेयोऽपि न भवति ॥ २३ ॥

Gita Press Translation – And for what offense did the sages, who knew what was right, employ a curse against the sovereign, who had taken a vow of punishing (the evil-doer)? (22) A ruler of the people, even though guilty, should not be treated with disrespect by the people inasmuch as he wields by his own glory the might of Indra and others (the protectors of the world) (23).

अयूयुजन् is a causative form derived from the धातुः √युज् (रुधादि-गणः, युजिँर् योगे, धातु-पाठः # ७. ७).

By the वार्तिकम् – इर इत्सञ्ज्ञा वाच्या, “इर्” of “युजिँर्” gets the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा and takes लोपः by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

The विवक्षा here is लुँङ्, कर्तरि प्रयोग: (हेतुमति), प्रथम-पुरुषः, बहुवचनम्

युज् + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च  – The affix “णिच्” is used after a root, when the operation of a causer – such as the operation of directing – is to be expressed.
= युज् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
= योज् + इ । By 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च, when a अङ्गम् is followed by a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्ययः or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्ययः, then its इक्-letter takes गुण-आदेशः in the following two cases:
i) The अङ्गम् ends in a “पुक्”-आगमः। or ii) The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् has the लघु-सञ्ज्ञा।
= योजि । “योजि” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

As a general rule, a धातुः ending in the affix “णिच्” can take आत्मनेपद-प्रत्ययाः by 1-3-74 णिचश्च and परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययाः by 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्। In this example “योजि” has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः।

(1) योजि + लुँङ् । By 3-2-110 लुङ्, the affix लुँङ् is prescribed after a verbal root when used in the sense of past.

(2) योजि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) योजि + झि ।  3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates “झि” as the substitute for the लकारः।

(4) योजि + झ् । By 3-4-100 इतश्‍च, the ending इकारः of a परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः which came in the place of a ङित्-लकारः is elided.

(5) योजि + अन्त् । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः, “अन्त्” comes in as a replacement for the झकारः of a प्रत्यय:।

(6) योजि + च्लि + अन्त् । By 3-1-43 च्लि लुङि, when लुँङ् follows, the प्रत्यय: “च्लि” is prescribed after a verbal root.
Note: This सूत्रम् is a अपवाद: for 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ etc.

(7) योजि + चङ् + अन्त् । By 3-1-48 णिश्रिद्रुस्रुभ्यः कर्तरि चङ् – In the active voice, the affix “च्लि” takes the substitute “चङ्” when following a verbal root ending in the affix “णि” or the verbal root √श्रि (श्रिञ् सेवायाम् १. १०४४) or √द्रु (द्रु गतौ १. १०९५) or √स्रु (स्रु गतौ १. १०९०).

Note: This सूत्रम् is अपवादः (exception) for 3-1-44 च्लेः सिच्

(8) योजि + अ + अन्त् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(9) युजि + अ + अन्त् । By 7-4-1 णौ चङ्युपधाया ह्रस्वः – There is a shortening of the penultimate letter (vowel) of a अङ्गम् which is followed by the affix “णि” which itself is followed by the affix “चङ्”। As per 1-1-48 एच इग्घ्रस्वादेशे – When a ह्रस्वः (short vowel) is to be substituted in place of a एच् letter (“ए”, “ओ”, “ऐ”, “औ”), the substitute should be a इक् letter (“इ”, “उ”, “ऋ”, “ऌ”) only.

(10) युज् युजि + अ + अन्त् । By 6-1-11 चङि – When the affix “चङ्” follows a verbal root, there is reduplication of the first portion – containing a single vowel – of the verbal root which is not already reduplicated. But if the verbal root (that has more than one vowel) begins with a vowel, then the reduplication is of the second portion – containing a single vowel.

(11) यु युजि + अ + अन्त् । By 7-4-60 हलादिः शेषः – Of the consonants of a reduplicate (अभ्यासः – ref. 6-1-4 पूर्वोऽभ्यासः), only the one (if any) at the beginning is retained, the rest are elided.

(12) यू युजि + अ + अन्त् । By 7-4-94 दीर्घो लघोः – In the context where an affix has सन्वद्भावः (behaves as if it is the affix “सन्”) by 7-4-93 सन्वल्लघुनि चङ्परेऽनग्लोपे, a prosodically short (लघु) vowel of the अभ्यासः (reduplicate) is elongated.
Note: 7-4-94 cannot apply unless the conditions specified in 7-4-93 are satisfied first.

Note: As per 7-4-93 सन्वल्लघुनि चङ्परेऽनग्लोपे – The operations on a reduplicate (अभ्यासः) belonging to a अङ्गम् which is followed by the affix “णि” which itself is followed by the affix “चङ्”, are done as if the affix “सन्” follows, provided the following two conditions are satisfied – i) the vowel (in this case the उकारः in “युजि”) following the अभ्यासः is लघु (prosodically short) and ii) there is no elision (based on the affix “णि”) of a अक् letter.

(13) यू युज् + अ + अन्त् । By 6-4-51 णेरनिटि – The “णि”-प्रत्यय: is elided when followed by an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: which does not have the augment इट्।

Note: Since the affix “अ” (चङ्) does not begin with a वल् letter it cannot take the “इट्”-आगमः (by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।)

(13) यूयुजन्त् । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे

(14) अट् यूयुजन्त् । By 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः – When followed by लुँङ्, लँङ् or लृँङ्, an अङ्गम् gets the “अट्”-आगमः which is उदात्तः। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the “अट्”-आगमः at the beginning of the अङ्गम्।

(15) अयूयुजन्त् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(16) अयूयुजन् । By 8-2-23 संयोगान्तस्य लोपः


1. In the first verse of which Chapter of the गीता has the verbal root √युज् (युजिँर् योगे ७. ७) been used in a causative form (as in this example) in a तिङन्तं पदम्?

2. What would be the final form in this example if लँङ् had been used instead of लुँङ्?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-1-11 चङि (used in step 10) the काशिका gives the example आटिटत्। From which verbal root is this form derived?

4. Which सूत्रम् is used for the इकारादेशः (in the अभ्यासः) in the form बिभर्ति?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Who gave you this job?” Paraphrase to “Who engaged you in this job?” Use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “कर्मन्” for “job” and use the verbal root √युज् (युजिँर् योगे ७. ७) in a causative form with the उपसर्गः “नि” for “to engage.”

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I have not read this book.” Paraphrase to “This book has not been read by me.”

Easy Questions:

1. Where has the प्रातिपदिकम् “अदस्” been used in the verses?

2. What is the alternate form for राज्ञि (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् “राजन्”, सप्तमी-एकवचनम्)?


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June 2012