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घातयिष्यति 3As-लृँट्

Today we will look at the form घातयिष्यति 3As-लृँट् from श्रीमद्वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 5.62.30.

स भग्नबाहूरुमुखो विह्वलः शोणितोक्षितः । प्रमुमोह महावीरो मुहूर्तं कपिकुञ्जरः ।। ५-६२-२७ ।।
स कथंचिद् विमुक्तस्तैर्वानरैर्वानरर्षभः । उवाचैकान्तमागत्य स्वान् भृत्यान् समुपागतान् ।। ५-६२-२८ ।।
एतागच्छत गच्छामो भर्ता नो यत्र वानरः । सुग्रीवो विपुलग्रीवः सह रामेण तिष्ठति ।। ५-६२-२९ ।।
सर्वं चैवाङ्गदे दोषं श्रावयिष्याम पार्थिवे । अमर्षी वचनं श्रुत्वा घातयिष्यति वानरान् ।। ५-६२-३० ।।

Gita Press translation – Having completely lost control over himself, nay, bathed in blood, his arms, thighs and face broken, that elephant among monkeys, an eminent hero, fainted away for a space.(27) Withdrawing to a secluded corner when let go somehow by those monkeys, that jewel among monkeys spoke (as follows) to his subordinates, who had come very near :- (28) “Come along, come away; we shall proceed to where the thick-necked monkey, Sugrīva, our master, resides with Śrī Rāma. (29) Nay, we shall make known to the king all the misconduct of Aṅgada. Full of indignation he will cause the (offending) monkeys to be put to death on hearing our complaint.”(30)

घातयिष्यति is a causative form derived from the धातुः √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २)

The विवक्षा is लृँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोग: (हेतुमति), प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्

The ending vowel of “हनँ” is an इत् as per 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes लोप: by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

हन् + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च – The affix “णिच्” is used after a root, when the operation of a causer – such as the operation of directing – is to be expressed. “णिच्” gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः
= घन् + णिच् । By 7-3-54 हो हन्तेर्ञ्णिन्नेषु, the हकारः of √हन् gets replaced by a letter of the कवर्ग: when followed by an affix with ञकारः or णकारः as an इत् , or when followed (immediately) by a नकारः।
= घत् + णिच् । By 7-3-32 हनस्तोऽचिण्णलोः – The ending letter (नकार:) of the verbal root √हन् (हनँ हिंसागत्योः २. २) is replaced by a तकार:, when followed by a प्रत्यय: (other than “चिण्” or “णल्”) which is either ञित् or णित्।
= घात् + णिच् । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः – A penultimate (उपधा) अकार: of a अङ्गम् gets वृद्धिः as the substitute when followed by a प्रत्ययः which is either ञित् or णित्।
= घात् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
= घाति।

“घाति” gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः

As per 1-3-74 णिचश्च, the धातु: “घाति” is उभयपदी। Here it has taken a परस्मैपद-प्रत्ययः।

(1) घाति + लृँट् । 3-3-13 लृट् शेषे च – With or without the presence of a क्रियार्था क्रिया (an action meant or intended for another action), the affix लृँट् is prescribed after a धातुः when used in the sense of future.

(2) घाति + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) घाति + तिप् । 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ् mandates the प्रत्ययः “तिप्” as the substitute for the लकारः।

(4) घाति + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(5) घाति + स्य + ति । By 3-1-33 स्यतासी लृलुटोः, the affixes “स्य” and “तासिँ” are prescribed after a धातुः when followed by “लृँ” (लृँट् or लृँङ्) or लुँट् respectively.

Note: This rule is a अपवाद: for 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌ etc.

(6) घाति + इट् स्य + ति । By 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः, an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: beginning with a letter of the वल्-प्रत्याहारः gets the augment “इट्”। 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ places the “इट्”-आगमः at the beginning of the प्रत्यय:।

(7) घाति + इस्य + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) घाते + इस्य + ति । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, an अङ्गम् whose final letter is an इक् gets गुण-आदेशः, when a सार्वधातुक-प्रत्यय: or an आर्धधातुक-प्रत्यय: follows.

(9) घातयिस्य + ति । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः

(10) घातयिष्यति । By 8-3-59 आदेशप्रत्यययो:, the letter “स्” is replaced by the cerebral “ष्” when preceded either by a letter of the इण्-प्रत्याहार: or a letter of the क-वर्ग: (“क्”, “ख्”, “ग्”, “घ्”, “ङ्”)। This substitution only takes place if the “स्” is an आदेश: (substitute) or part of a प्रत्यय: (affix.)


1. Where in the गीता has 7-3-32 हनस्तोऽचिण्णलोः been used in a तिङन्तं पदम्?

2. In the verses, can you spot a तिङन्तं पदम् which is a आर्ष-प्रयोग: (archaic – does not fit the rules of grammar)?

3. In which तिङन्तं पदम् in the verses has √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) been used?

4. Where has 6-1-17 लिट्यभ्यासस्योभयेषाम् been used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् is used for the छकारादेश: in the forms आगच्छत and गच्छाम:?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In the morning, the Sun will destroy this darkness.” Use the अव्ययम् “प्रातर्” for “in the morning” and use the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् “तमस्” for “darkness.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has 7-1-94 ऋदुशनस्पुरुदंसोऽनेहसां च been used in the verses?

2. In the verses can you spot a प्रातिपदिकम् which ends in a नकार:?

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