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सखायम् mAs

Today we will look at the form सखायम् from श्रीमद्भागवतम् SB 8-11-13

सखायं पतितं दृष्ट्वा जम्भो बलिसखः सुहृत् ।
अभ्ययात् सौहृदं सख्युर्हतस्यापि समाचरन् ।। ८-११-१३ ।।

Gita Press translation "Finding his friend (Bali) fallen (in battle), the demon Jambha, a (great) friend and well-wisher of Bali, assailed Indra, (thus) rendering good offices even to his fallen friend."

सखि gets प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा by 1-2-45 अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्. The विवक्षा here is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्. 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप् mandates the प्रत्ययाः सुँ, औ, जस् etc. after the प्रातिपदिकम् “सखि”.

(1) सखि + अम् । अम् gets सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य . By 7-1-92 सख्युरसम्बुद्धौ , when following the word सखि that has the designation अङ्गम्, the non-vocative affixes that have the designation सर्वनामस्थानम् behave as if they have णकारः as an इत् .

(2) सखै + अम् । By 7-2-115 अचो ञ्णिति , the ending vowel of the अङ्गम् gets a वृद्धिः substitute, when followed by a प्रत्ययः that has ञकारः or a णकारः as an इत् .

(3) सखायम् । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः, ‘आय्’ comes as an आदेशः for ‘ऐ’.


1. Where is the सूत्रम् 6-1-112 ख्यत्यात्‌ परस्य used in this verse?

2. As we have seen in previous examples, the त्वा-प्रत्यय: is used when we have the same doer doing two actions. The verbal root in the earlier action takes the त्वा-प्रत्यय: . (The सूत्रम् is 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले ।) In this verse we have the word दृष्ट्वा which comes from the धातु: “दृश्” . Who is the doer of this action? Which word in the verse gives us the second (later) action?

3. Why didn’t 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः apply (instead of 7-2-115 अचो ञ्णिति) after step 1? Why didn’t it apply (instead of 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः) after step 2?

4. Where does पाणिनि: define the term “सम्बुद्धि:” ?

5. Which word in the verse translates to “well-wisher” ? Where is this प्रातिपदिकम् used in the गीता ?

6. In the declension table, in which of the 21 (7 x 3) places does सखि-शब्द: differ from हरि-शब्द:?

7. We have studied a सूत्रम् which is an अपवाद: for 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः . Which one is that?

8. In the commentary on 7-1-92 सख्युरसम्बुद्धौ the काशिका says “असम्बुद्धौ इति किम्? हे सखे। ” Please explain what this means.

9. Besides the सूत्रम् 7-1-92 सख्युरसम्बुद्धौ , there is another सूत्रम् (which we have studied) where पाणिनि: specifically mentions the प्रातिपदिकम् “सखि” . Which one is that?

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