Today we will look at the form घृतपायससंयावम् nNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 9.21.4.
वियद्वित्तस्य ददतो लब्धं लब्धं बुभुक्षतः । निष्किञ्चनस्य धीरस्य सकुटुम्बस्य सीदतः ।। ९-२१-३ ।।
व्यतीयुरष्टचत्वारिंशदहान्यपिबतः किल । घृतपायससंयावं तोयं प्रातरुपस्थितम् ।। ९-२१-४ ।।
कृच्छ्रप्राप्तकुटुम्बस्य क्षुत्तृड्भ्यां जातवेपथोः । अतिथिर्ब्राह्मणः काले भोक्तुकामस्य चागमत् ।। ९-२१-५ ।।
वियद्वित्तस्य वियतो गगनादिवोद्यमं विना दैवादुपस्थितमेव वित्तं भोग्यं यस्य । यद्वा वियद्व्ययं प्राप्नुवद्वित्तं भोग्यं यस्य । तदेवाह – बुभुक्षतोऽपि सतो लब्धं लब्धं ददतः । तत्प्रपञ्चयति – निष्किंचनस्येत्यादिसार्धैः पञ्चदशभिः ।। ३ ।। अपिबतो जलपानमप्यकुर्वतः । घृतादित्रयाणां द्वन्द्वैक्यम् । तोयं च ।। ४ ।। ५ ।।
Gita Press translation – In the case of Rantideva, who subsisted on whatever was obtained without any effort and who, though feeling hungry (himself), gave away all that was got, and was thus rendered (utterly) destitute (having no provision even for the evening much less for the next day), and therefore suffering terrible hardship, along with his family – who were reduced to (great) straits – (nay), trembling due to (excessive) hunger and thirst, yet calm, passed (not less than) forty-eight days – so the tradition goes – without his taking (even) water. In the morning (of the forty-ninth day) there came to him (by chance) ghee, rice cooked in milk with sugar, Saṁyāva (a kind of porridge made of wheat flour with ghee and milk), as well as water. And when he was intending to partake of it, there arrived, at that (very) time, a newcomer in the person of a Brāhmaṇa (3-5).
(1) घृतं च पायसं च संयावश्चैषां समाहार: = घृतपायससंयावम् – (A collection of) ghee, rice cooked in milk with sugar and Saṁyāva (a kind of porridge made of wheat flour with ghee and milk.)
(2) घृत सुँ + पायस सुँ + संयाव सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।
(3) घृत सुँ + पायस सुँ + संयाव सुँ । ‘घृत’ has only two syllables while ‘पायस’ as well as ‘संयाव’ has three syllables. Therefore ‘घृत सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम् – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position (and the remaining terms of the compound may be placed in any order.)
Note: ‘घृत सुँ + पायस सुँ + संयाव सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम् by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
(4) घृत + पायस + संयाव । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
= घृतपायससंयाव ।
Since the terms of this द्वन्द्व: compound denote classes (generic names) of things which are not living beings, it is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-6 जातिरप्राणिनाम् – A द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote classes (generic names) of things which are not living beings is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) and not इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.)
And as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम् this compound is neuter in gender. It declines like वन-शब्द:।
The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।
(5) घृतपायससंयाव + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।
(6) घृतपायससंयाव + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
(7) घृतपायससंयावम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.
1. Which type of compound is जातवेपथोः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जातवेपथु’, पुंलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्) as used in the verses?
2. Which वार्तिकम् mandates the placement of the term ‘पञ्च’ in the prior position in the compound पञ्चदशभिः used in the commentary?
3. The form बुभुक्षतः used in the verses is आर्ष: (grammatically irregular.) What is the grammatically correct form?
4. Which सूत्रम् justifies the repetition of the word लब्धम् in the verses?
5. In which sense has a third case affix been used in the form क्षुत्तृड्भ्याम् in the verses?
iv) None of the above
6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I like cakes and sweetmeats.” Form a द्वन्द्व: compound for ‘(a group of) cakes and sweetmeats’ = शष्कुल्यश्च मोदकाश्चैषां समाहार:।
1. From which verbal root is the form व्यतीयु: derived?
2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-1-55 पुषादिद्युताद्यॢदितः परस्मैपदेषु been used in the verses?