Today we will look at the form बलाबलम् nAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 5.34.25.
किं नु स्याच्चित्तमोहोऽयं भवेद्वातगतिस्त्वियम् । उन्मादजो विकारो वा स्यादयं मृगतृष्णिका ।। ५-३४-२३ ।।
अथवा नायमुन्मादो मोहोऽप्युन्मादलक्षणः । सम्बुध्ये चाहमात्मानमिमं चापि वनौकसम् ।। ५-३४-२४ ।।
इत्येवं बहुधा सीता सम्प्रधार्य बलाबलम् । रक्षसां कामरूपत्वान्मेने तं राक्षसाधिपम् ।। ५-३४-२५ ।।
एतां बुद्धिं तदा कृत्वा सीता सा तनुमध्यमा । न प्रतिव्याजहाराथ वानरं जनकात्मजा ।। ५-३४-२६ ।।
Gita Press translation – “Can this (meeting of mine with a monkey) be a delusion of my mind? Or it may be a delusion caused by my being possessed by a ghost (clothed with an aerial body). Or (again) it may be a malady born of insanity or it may be (only) an optic illusion (23). Or this may not be (a case of) insanity, nor even delusion showing symptoms similar to those of insanity, for I am conscious of my own self as well as of this monkey (24).” Having thus duly considered in many ways the strength of ogres and the weakness of monkeys (who cannot be expected to leap across a vast sea), and (also) considering the fact that the ogres are able to change their form at will, Sītā concluded Hanūmān to be Rāvaṇa (the suzerain ruler of ogres) (25). Having arrived at this conclusion at that time that lady of slender waist, Sītā, Janaka’s daughter, did not speak any more to the monkey (26).
(1) बलं चाबलं चानयो: समाहार: = बलाबलम् – a group (in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) of strength and weakness.
Note: अबलम् itself is a नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound, explained as न बलम् = अबलम् – weakness (not strength.)
(2) बल सुँ + अबल सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।
(3) बल सुँ + अबल सुँ । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्, ‘अबल सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘अबल’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ while ‘बल’ does not. But since ‘बल’ has only two syllables while ‘अबल’ has three syllables, ‘बल सुँ’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम् – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.
Note: 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम् being a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी has greater force than the prior rule 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्। Therefore ‘बल सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in this compound.
Note: ‘बल सुँ + अबल सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम् by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
(4) बल + अबल । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
(5) बलाबल । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः ।
Since the terms of this द्वन्द्व: compound have opposite meanings and do not denote physical objects, it is optionally singular in number and hence expresses either a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) or इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident) as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-13 विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरणवाचि – A द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms have opposite meanings and do not denote physical objects is optionally singular in number and hence expresses either a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) or इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.).
In the present example, the compound is singular in number and hence expresses a समाहार:।
See questions 1 and 2.
And as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम् it is neuter in gender. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।
The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।
(6) बलाबल + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।
(7) बलाबल + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात् from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।
(8) बलाबलम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.
1. What would be the final form in this example if the compound were to express इतरेतरयोग:?
2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-4-13 विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरणवाचि (used in step 5) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – वैकल्पिक: समाहारद्वन्द्व: ‘चार्थे द्वन्द्वः’ इति सूत्रेण प्राप्त: स विरुद्धार्थानां यदि भवति तर्हि अद्रव्यवाचिनामेवेति नियमार्थमिदम्। तेन द्रव्यवाचिनामितरेतरयोग एव। शीतोष्णे उदके स्त:। Please explain.
3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – विप्रतिषिद्धं किम्? नन्दकपाञ्चजन्यौ। इह पाक्षिक: समाहारद्वन्द्वो भवत्येव। Please explain.
4. What is the विग्रह: of the compound तनुमध्यमा as used in the verses?
5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the form कामरूपत्वात् used in the verses?
6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“One should engage in war only after having duly considered the strength and weakness of the enemy.”
1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘अ’ in the form स्यात्?
2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used in the verses?