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सुरासुराः mNp

Today we will look at the form सुरासुराः  mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 8.7.9.

तमुत्थितं वीक्ष्य कुलाचलं पुनः समुद्यता निर्मथितुं सुरासुराः । दधार पृष्ठेन स लक्षयोजनप्रस्तारिणा द्वीप इवापरो महान् ।। ८-७-९ ।।
सुरासुरेन्द्रैर्भुजवीर्यवेपितं परिभ्रमन्तं गिरिमङ्ग पृष्ठतः । बिभ्रत्तदावर्तनमादिकच्छपो मेनेऽङ्गकण्डूयनमप्रमेयः ।। ८-७-१० ।।

लक्षयोजनः प्रस्तारो विस्तारोऽस्यास्तीति तथा तेन पृष्ठेन ।। ९ ।। यस्य गिरेरावर्तनं भ्रमणमङ्गकण्डूयनं मेने ।। १० ।।

Gita Press translation – On seeing the great mountain rising, the gods and demons girded their loins once more to proceed with the churning. Like another great division of the globe, the Lord (in the form of a tortoise) bore the mountain on His back, which was one lakh Yojanas or 8,00,0000 miles in extent (9). Supporting on His back, O dear Parīkṣit, the mountain shaken by the might of arms of the principal gods and demons and (consequently) set revolving, the infinite Lord, manifested as the First Tortoise regarded its revolution as the (mere) scratching of His back (10).

(1) सुराश्चासुराश्च = सुरासुराः – the gods and demons.

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-9 येषां च विरोधः शाश्वतिकः – A द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote those among whom there is permanent enmity is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) and not इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.)
But, the compound सुरासुरा: (which expresses इतरेतरयोग:) is allowed because the enmity between the सुरा: (gods) and असुरा: (demons) is not permanent. (They cooperated during the churning of the ocean.)

(2) सुर जस् + असुर जस् । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) सुर जस् + असुर जस् । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌, ‘असुर जस्’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound because ‘असुर’ begins with a vowel and ends in the letter ‘अ’ while ‘सुर’ does not. But since ‘सुर’ has only two syllables while ‘असुर’ has three syllables, ‘सुर जस्’ should be placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the least number of syllables (vowels) is placed in the prior position.
Note: 2-2-34 अल्पाच्तरम्‌ being a later rule in the अष्टाध्यायी has greater force than the prior rule 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌। Therefore ‘सुर जस्’ is placed in the prior position in this compound.

Note: ‘सुर जस् + असुर जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सुर + असुर । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) सुरासुर । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुरासुर’ is masculine since the final member ‘असुर’ of the compound is in the masculine.

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् ।

(6) सुरासुर + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) सुरासुर + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(8) सुरासुरास् । By 6-1-102 प्रथमयोः पूर्वसवर्णः

(9) सुरासुराः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-4-9 येषां च विरोधः शाश्वतिकः (referenced in step 1) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – गोव्याघ्रम्। काकोलूकमित्यादौ परत्वात् ‘वृक्षमृगतृणधान्यव्यञ्जनपशुशकुन्यश्ववडवपूर्वापराधरोत्तराणाम्‌ ‘ इति प्राप्तं चाकारेण बाध्यते। Please explain.

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-32 कर्तृकरणे कृता बहुलम्‌ been used in the verses?

3. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रमेय’ (used as part of the नञ्-तत्पुरुष: compound अप्रमेयः in the verses) derived?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘इ’ in the form उत्थितम् used in the verses?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to construct the neuter प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आवर्तन’ (used in the form आवर्तनम् (द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Requested by the gods and demons, (Lord) Śiva drank the frightful poison produced from the churning of the ocean.” Use the verbal root √अर्थ (अर्थ उपयाच्ञायाम् १०. ४४७) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘प्र’ for ‘to request.’ Use the adjective ‘घोर’ for ‘frightful.’ Use the verbal root √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४) for ‘to be produced.’

Easy questions:

1. What prevents the augment नुँम् (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-1-70 उगिदचां सर्वनामस्थानेऽधातोः) from applying in the form बिभ्रत् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘बिभ्रत्’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used in the verses?

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