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पाणिपादम् nAs

Today we will look at the form पाणिपादम्  nAs from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 6.48.13.

समग्रयवमच्छिद्रं पाणिपादं च वर्णवत् । मन्दस्मितेत्येव च मां कन्यालाक्षणिका विदुः ।। ६-४८-१३ ।।
अाधिराज्येऽभिषेको मे ब्राह्मणैः पतिना सह । कृतान्तकुशलैरुक्तं तत्सर्वं वितथीकृतम् ।। ६-४८-१४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Those capable of interpreting the bodily marks of maidens declared my hands and feet to be rosy, devoid of space between the fingers and toes and with the mark of a barleycorn fully manifest on them and (also) spoke of me as distinguished by a gentle smile (which are all auspicious marks) (13). It was predicted by Brāhmaṇas well-versed in the conclusion of astrology that I should be consecrated along with my husband on the imperial throne. All that has (however) been falsified (14).

(1) पाणी च पादौ चैषां समाहार: = पाणिपादम् – (A group of) (two) hands and (two) feet.

(2) पाणि औ + पाद औ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) पाणि औ + पाद औ । ‘पाणि’ has the designation ‘घि’ (as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-7 शेषो घ्यसखि) while ‘पाद’ does not. Hence ‘पाणि औ’ is placed in the prior position in this द्वन्द्व: compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-32 द्वन्द्वे घि – In a द्वन्द्व: compound the term having the designation ‘घि’ is placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पाणि औ + पाद औ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) पाणि + पाद । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= पाणिपाद ।

Since the terms of this द्वन्द्व: compound denote the limbs of a living being, it is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) as per the सूत्रम् 2-4-2 द्वन्द्वश्च प्राणितूर्यसेनाङ्गानाम्‌ – A द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote either the limbs of a living being or players of musical instruments in a band or parts of an army is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) and not इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.)

And as per 2-4-17 स नपुंसकम्‌ it is neuter in gender. The compound declines like वन-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(5) पाणिपाद + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।

(6) पाणिपाद + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes ‘सुँ’ and ‘अम्’ that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel ‘अ’ take ‘अम्’ as their replacement. Note: 7-1-24 is required here to prevent 7-1-23 स्वमोर्नपुंसकात्‌ from applying.
1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(7) पाणिपादम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.


1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-4-2 द्वन्द्वश्च प्राणितूर्यसेनाङ्गानाम्‌ (used in step 4) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – समाहारस्यैकत्वादेकत्वे सिद्धे नियमार्थं प्रकरणम्‌। प्राण्यङ्गादीनां समाहार एव यथा स्यात्। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – द्विगुरेकवचनमित्यत एकवचनं वर्तते। Please explain.

3. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे) नञोऽस्त्यर्थानां वाच्यो वा चोत्तरपदलोपः been used in the verses?

4. What type of compound is मन्दस्मिता as used in the verses?
i. द्वन्द्व:
ii. कर्मधारय:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. सुप्सुपा

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form पतिना used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Enter the temple only after washing (your) hands and feet.”

Easy questions:

1. The form पतिना used in the verses is आर्ष: (grammatically irregular.) What is the grammatically correct form?

2. What is the alternate form for विदुः?

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