Home » Example for the day » दुर्हृदाम् mGp

दुर्हृदाम् mGp

Today we will look at the form दुर्हृदाम्  mGp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.73.32.

गत्वा ते खाण्डवप्रस्थं शङ्खान्दध्मुर्जितारयः । हर्षयन्तः स्वसुहृदो दुर्हृदां चासुखावहाः ।। १०-७३-३२ ।।
तच्छ्रुत्वा प्रीतमनस इन्द्रप्रस्थनिवासिनः । मेनिरे मागधं शान्तं राजा चाप्तमनोरथः ।। १०-७३-३३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
खाण्डवप्रस्थमिन्द्रप्रस्थम् ।। ३२ ।। शान्तं मृतम् । आप्तमनोरथो बभूव ।। ३३ ।।

Gita Press translation – On reaching the outskirts of the city, the three victorious heroes blew their respective conchs, bringing joy to their friends and sorrow to their enemies (32). The people of Indraprastha were extremely delighted at heart to hear the sound and concluded at once that Jarāsandha had been killed and that King Yudhiṣṭhira had well-nigh achieved his object (33).

(1) दु: (दुष्टं/अशोभनं) हृदयं यस्य स: = दुर्हृत् (अमित्र:) – An enemy.

(2) दुर् + हृदय सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) The adjective ‘दुर्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘दुर् + हृदय सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दुर् + हृदय । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) दुर्हृद् । By 5-4-150 सुहृद्‍दुर्हृदौ मित्रामित्रयोः – ‘सुहृद्’ and ‘दुर्हृद्’ are given as two ready-made compounds in the meaning of ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively. Note: This implies that when following ‘सु’ and ‘दुर्’ the term ‘हृदय’ is replaced by ‘हृद्’ to derive compounds meaning ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively.
Note: The compounds ‘सुहृद्’ and ‘दुर्हृद्’ could also be formed by using the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हृद्’ (instead of ‘हृदय’)। Hence the real purpose of this सूत्रम् is not to facilitate the construction of the compounds ‘सुहृद्’ and ‘दुर्हृद्’ but to prevent the construction of the compounds ‘सुहृदय’ and ‘दुर्हृदय’ in the meanings of ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively.

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example even though the qualified word is not specifically mentioned, from the context it can be taken to be the masculine noun ‘जन’। Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दुर्हृद्’।

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम् ।

(6) दुर्हृद् + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of आम् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

= दुर्हृदाम् ।

Questions:

1. In which verse of Chapter One of the गीता has the सूत्रम् 5-4-150 सुहृद्दुर्हृदौ मित्रामित्रयोः (used in step 5) been used?

2. Where else (besides in दुर्हृदाम्) has the सूत्रम् 5-4-150 सुहृद्दुर्हृदौ मित्रामित्रयोः been used in the verses?

3. In which word in the verses does the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ find application?

4. What is the विग्रह: of the compound जितारयः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जितारि’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) as used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘णिनिँ’ used in the form इन्द्रप्रस्थनिवासिनः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘इन्द्रप्रस्थनिवासिन्’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I don’t consider anyone (to be) an enemy.”

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘वुक्’ in the form बभूव (used in the commentary)?


1 Comment

  1. 1. In which verse of Chapter One of the गीता has the सूत्रम् 5-4-150 सुहृद्‍दुर्हृदौ मित्रामित्रयोः (used in step 5) been used?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 5-4-150 सुहृद्‍दुर्हृदौ मित्रामित्रयोः has been used in the form सुहृदः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुहृद्’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्)।
    श्वशुरान्सुहृदश्चैव सेनयोरुभयोरपि |
    तान्समीक्ष्य स कौन्तेयः सर्वान्बन्धूनवस्थितान्‌ || 1-27||

    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुहृद्’ is shown in the following post – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2016/01/14/सुहृदः-mnp/

    The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example, ‘जन’ (not explicitly specified) is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुहृद्’।

    2. Where else (besides in दुर्हृदाम्) has the सूत्रम् 5-4-150 सुहृद्‍दुर्हृदौ मित्रामित्रयोः been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 5-4-150 सुहृद्‍दुर्हृदौ मित्रामित्रयोः has also been used in the form स्वसुहृदः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्वसुहृद्’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्)।

    First, we form the compound ‘सुहृद्’ which is as shown in the following post – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2016/01/14/सुहृदः-mnp/

    Then, we form the षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः compound ‘ स्वसुहृद्’ as follows –

    The लौकिक-विग्रहः is –
    स्वस्य सुहृद् = स्वसुहृद् – one’s friend (well-wisher)

    अलौकिक-विग्रह: of the compound is –
    स्व ङस् + सुहृद् सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी।
    By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘स्व ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘स्व ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌।
    Note: ‘स्व ङस् + सुहृद् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = स्व + सुहृद् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = स्वसुहृद् ।

    As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्वसुहृद्’ is an adjective since the latter member ‘सुहृद्’ of the compound is an adjective. It is used in the masculine here since it is qualifying the implied masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जन’। Hence the form is स्वसुहृदः (पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्)।

    3. In which word in the verses does the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ find application?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ finds application in स्वसुहृदः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्वसुहृद्’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्)।

    As per the सूत्रम् 1-4-55 तत्प्रयोजको हेतुश्च we know that जितारयः is the हेतु: (cause) in the clause जितारयः स्वसुहृदो हर्षयन्तः – the victorious heroes bringing joy to their (own) friends. (In this sentence स्वसुहृदः is पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्)। On removing the हेतु: we get the non-causative form of the clause as स्वसुहृदो हृष्यन्तः – their (own) friends rejoicing. (In this sentence स्वसुहृदः is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्)। स्वसुहृदः is the agent of the non-causal verbal root √हृष् (हृषँ तुष्टौ ४.१४२). This agent (of the non-causal verbal root) becomes the कर्म (object) णौ (in the causative state) as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ which states – A कर्ता (agent) of a non-causal verbal root becomes the कर्म (object) of the causal verbal root provided the verbal root either –
    (i) denotes either गति: (movement) or बुद्धि: (perception) or प्रत्यवसानम् (consuming) or
    (ii) has शब्द: (sound) as its object or
    (iii) has no object at all.

    This सूत्रम् applies here because the verbal root in question – √हृष् (हृषँ तुष्टौ ४.१४२) – is non-transitive (अकर्मक:)।

    Note: In the causative state, हर्षयन्तः is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् of the कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हर्षयत्’ (which ends in the affix ‘शतृँ’)। In the non-causative state, हृष्यन्तः is पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् of the कृदन्त-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हृष्यत्’ (which ends in the affix ‘शतृँ’)।

    4. What is the विग्रह: of the compound जितारयः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जितारि’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) as used in the verses?
    Answer: The विग्रह: of the compound जितारयः is
    जिता अरयो यैस्ते = जितारयः – those by whom the enemies have been conquered.

    जित जस् + अरि जस् । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे।
    The adjective ‘जित जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ।
    Note: ‘जित जस् + अरि जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = जित + अरि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = जितारि । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः।

    The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example, ते – the three people (Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Bhīma and Arjuna) are being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जितारि’। It declines like हरि-शब्द:। प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् is जितारयः।

    5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘णिनिँ’ used in the form इन्द्रप्रस्थनिवासिनः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘इन्द्रप्रस्थनिवासिन्’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्)?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये prescribes the affix ‘णिनिँ’ in the form इन्द्रप्रस्थनिवासिनः।

    इन्द्रप्रस्थे निवसन्ति तच्छीलाः = इन्द्रप्रस्थनिवासिनः – the (habitual) residents of (the city) Indraprastha.

    इन्द्रप्रस्थ + ङि + नि वस् + णिनिँ । By 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये – When in composition with a सुबन्तं पदम् (a पदम् which ends in a सुँप् affix) which does not denote a class/genus, a verbal root may take the affix ‘णिनिँ’ to express the meaning of a habitual/natural action.
    Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-2-78, the term सुपि ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence ‘इन्द्रप्रस्थ + ङि’ gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌।
    = इन्द्रप्रस्थ + ङि + नि वस् + इन् । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = इन्द्रप्रस्थ + ङि + नि वास् + इन् । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः।
    We form a compound between ‘इन्द्रप्रस्थ + ङि’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘निवासिन्’ by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्। In the compound, ‘इन्द्रप्रस्थ + ङि’ is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌। Note: Here ‘इन्द्रप्रस्थ + ङि’ is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ् (which prescribes the compounding) the term उपपदम् ends in the nominative case.
    ‘इन्द्रप्रस्थ + ङि + निवासिन्’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = इन्द्रप्रस्थनिवासिन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।

    This is an adjective qualifying the implied masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जन’। Hence the form is इन्द्रप्रस्थनिवासिनः (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्)।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “I don’t consider anyone (to be) an enemy.”
    Answer: (अहम्) न कम् अपि दुर्हृदम् मन्ये = न कमपि दुर्हृदं मन्ये।

    Easy questions:
    1. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि has been used in the form मेनिरे – derived from the verbal root √मन् (मनँ ज्ञाने ४. ७३, मनुँ अवबोधने ८. ९).

    The derivation of the form मेनिरे is as shown in the following post – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/01/25/मेनिरे-3ap-लिँट्

    2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘वुक्’ in the form बभूव (used in the commentary)?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-88 भुवो वुग्लुङ्लिटोः prescribes the augment ‘वुक्’ in the form बभूव – derived from the verbal root √भू (भू सत्तायाम् १. १).

    Please see the answer to question 3 in the following comment for the derivation of the form बभूव – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/01/25/मेनिरे-3ap-लिँट्/#comment-3158

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Recent Posts

January 2016
M T W T F S S
« Dec   Feb »
 123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293031

Topics