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सहस्रपात् mNs

Today we will look at the form सहस्रपात्  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.22.3.

ब्रह्मासृजत्स्वमुखतो युष्मानात्मपरीप्सया । छन्दोमयस्तपोविद्यायोगयुक्तानलम्पटान् ।। ३-२२-२ ।।
तत्त्राणायासृजच्चास्मान्दोःसहस्रात्सहस्रपात् । हृदयं तस्य हि ब्रह्म क्षत्रमङ्गं प्रचक्षते ।। ३-२२-३ ।।

मदीया कन्या त्वया परिणेयेति विज्ञापयिष्यन् युष्मदस्मत्संबन्धस्तावदीश्वरेण पूर्वमेव घटित इत्याह – ब्रह्मेति सार्धाभ्याम् । आत्मनः परीप्सया पर्याप्तुमिच्छया । छन्दोमयस्यात्मनः पर्याप्तिः पालनं वेदप्रवर्तनं तस्येच्छया । युष्मान् ब्राह्मणान् ।। २ ।। तत्त्राणाय ब्राह्मणपालनाय । ब्रह्म ब्राह्मणजातिः । क्षत्रं क्षत्रियजातिः ।। ३ ।।

Gita Press translation – The Manu said: The Cosmic Being, who is Veda personified, evolved you (the Brāhmaṇas), rich in austere penance, learning and Yoga (concentration of mind), and averse to the pleasures of sense, from his mouth for the protection (continuance) of his own self in the form of the Vedas (2). And for the protection of the Brāhmaṇas the same thousand-footed Being evolved us (Kṣatriyas) from His thousand arms. Hence they speak of the Brāhmaṇa race as His heart and the Kṣatriya race as His outer limbs (arms) (3).

(1) सहस्रं पादा यस्य स: = सहस्रपात् – He who has a thousand feet.

(2) सहस्र सुँ + पाद जस् । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) The adjective ‘सहस्र सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘सहस्र सुँ + पाद जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सहस्रपाद । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) सहस्रपाद् । By 5-4-140 संख्यासुपूर्वस्य – The ending letter of a बहुव्रीहि: compound in which the prior member either denotes a number or is the term ‘सु’ and the final member is ‘पाद’ is elided and this elision becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-52 अलोऽन्त्यस्य only the ending letter of the compound – and not the entire compound – is elided.
Note: The purpose of specifying the elision as being the ending member of the compound is to prevent the application of 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा which only applies if no other समासान्त: operation has been prescribed.

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example, ब्रह्मा is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सहस्रपाद्’।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(6) सहस्रपाद् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) सहस्रपाद् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) सहस्रपाद् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।
Note: Now ‘सहस्रपाद्’ gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् । This allows the सूत्रम् 8-4-56 to apply in the next step.

(9) सहस्रपाद्/सहस्रपात् । By 8-4-56 वावसाने


1. From which सूत्रम् does the अनुवृत्ति: of ‘पादस्य लोप:’ come into the सूत्रम् 5-4-140 संख्यासुपूर्वस्य (used in step 5)?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-55 आप्ज्ञप्यृधामीत्‌ been used in the verses?

3. Can you spot a नञ्-तत्पुरुषः compound in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of the affix ‘लृँट्’) in the form विज्ञापयिष्यन् used in the commentary?

5. In which word in the commentary has the affix यत् been used?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“On the earth, there are many creatures with two legs or with four legs, but none with three legs.” Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जन्तु’ for ‘creature.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the affix ‘श’ in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-1-5 आत्मनेपदेष्वनतः been used in the verses?

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