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Daily Archives: January 14, 2016

सुहृदः mNp

Today we will look at the form सुहृदः  mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.13.11.

भवद्विधा भागवतास्तीर्थभूताः स्वयं विभो । तीर्थीकुर्वन्ति तीर्थानि स्वान्तःस्थेन गदाभृता ।। १-१३-१० ।।
अपि नः सुहृदस्तात बान्धवाः कृष्णदेवताः । दृष्टाः श्रुता वा यदवः स्वपुर्यां सुखमासते ।। १-१३-११ ।।

भवतां च तीर्थाटनं न स्वार्थं किंतु तीर्थानुग्रहार्थमित्याह – भवद्विधा इति । मलिनजनसंपर्केण मलिनानि तीर्थानि सन्तः पुनः स्वयं तीर्थीकुर्वन्ति । स्वान्तं मनस्तत्रस्थेन । स्वस्यान्तःस्थितेनेति वा ।। १० ।। अपि किं सुखमासते भवद्भिः क्वापि दृष्टाः श्रुता वा ।। ११ ।।

Gita Press translation – Devotees of God like you, my lord, are not only consecrated themselves; but it is they who revive the sanctity of sacred places (that get polluted by the contact of sinners) by the living presence of Lord Viṣṇu (the Wielder of a mace), in their heart (10). Dear uncle, are our friends and relations, the Yādavas, who look upon Śrī Kṛṣṇa as their deity, doing well in their own city (Dwārakā)? Did you happen to see or even hear of them? (11)

(1) सु (शोभनं) हृदयं यस्य स: = सुहृत् (मित्रम्) – A friend.

(2) सु + हृदय सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) The adjective ‘सु’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘सु + हृदय सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) सु + हृदय । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) सुहृद् । By 5-4-150 सुहृद्‍दुर्हृदौ मित्रामित्रयोः – ‘सुहृद्’ and ‘दुर्हृद्’ are given as two ready-made compounds in the meaning of ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively. Note: This implies that when following ‘सु’ and ‘दुर्’ the term ‘हृदय’ is replaced by ‘हृद्’ to derive compounds meaning ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively.
Note: The compounds ‘सुहृद्’ and ‘दुर्हृद्’ could also be formed by using the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हृद्’ (instead of ‘हृदय’)। Hence the real purpose of this सूत्रम् is not to facilitate the construction of the compounds ‘सुहृद्’ and ‘दुर्हृद्’ but to prevent the construction of the compounds ‘सुहृदय’ and ‘दुर्हृदय’ in the meanings of ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively.

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example, यदवः (Yādavas) are being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सुहृद्’।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् ।

(6) सुहृद् + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) सुहृद् + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of जस् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(8) सुहृदः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. In the last verse of which chapter of the गीता has the compound ‘सुहृद्’ been used?

2. What is the विग्रह: of the compound कृष्णदेवताः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कृष्णदेवत’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

3. Can you spot the affix क्विँप् in the verses?

4. Which वार्तिकम् justifies the use of a second case affix in the form सुखम् used in the verses?

5. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 6-1-58 सृजिदृशोर्झल्यमकिति apply in the form दृष्टाः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दृष्ट’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses? (Which condition is not satisfied?)

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Without friends, there is no happiness in life.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-108 ह्रस्वस्य गुणः been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘अत्’ in the form आसते?

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