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दुर्हृदाम् mGp

Today we will look at the form दुर्हृदाम्  mGp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.73.32.

गत्वा ते खाण्डवप्रस्थं शङ्खान्दध्मुर्जितारयः । हर्षयन्तः स्वसुहृदो दुर्हृदां चासुखावहाः ।। १०-७३-३२ ।।
तच्छ्रुत्वा प्रीतमनस इन्द्रप्रस्थनिवासिनः । मेनिरे मागधं शान्तं राजा चाप्तमनोरथः ।। १०-७३-३३ ।।

खाण्डवप्रस्थमिन्द्रप्रस्थम् ।। ३२ ।। शान्तं मृतम् । आप्तमनोरथो बभूव ।। ३३ ।।

Gita Press translation – On reaching the outskirts of the city, the three victorious heroes blew their respective conchs, bringing joy to their friends and sorrow to their enemies (32). The people of Indraprastha were extremely delighted at heart to hear the sound and concluded at once that Jarāsandha had been killed and that King Yudhiṣṭhira had well-nigh achieved his object (33).

(1) दु: (दुष्टं/अशोभनं) हृदयं यस्य स: = दुर्हृत् (अमित्र:) – An enemy.

(2) दुर् + हृदय सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) The adjective ‘दुर्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘दुर् + हृदय सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दुर् + हृदय । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) दुर्हृद् । By 5-4-150 सुहृद्‍दुर्हृदौ मित्रामित्रयोः – ‘सुहृद्’ and ‘दुर्हृद्’ are given as two ready-made compounds in the meaning of ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively. Note: This implies that when following ‘सु’ and ‘दुर्’ the term ‘हृदय’ is replaced by ‘हृद्’ to derive compounds meaning ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively.
Note: The compounds ‘सुहृद्’ and ‘दुर्हृद्’ could also be formed by using the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हृद्’ (instead of ‘हृदय’)। Hence the real purpose of this सूत्रम् is not to facilitate the construction of the compounds ‘सुहृद्’ and ‘दुर्हृद्’ but to prevent the construction of the compounds ‘सुहृदय’ and ‘दुर्हृदय’ in the meanings of ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’ respectively.

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example even though the qualified word is not specifically mentioned, from the context it can be taken to be the masculine noun ‘जन’। Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दुर्हृद्’।

The विवक्षा is षष्ठी-बहुवचनम् ।

(6) दुर्हृद् + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of आम् from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

= दुर्हृदाम् ।


1. In which verse of Chapter One of the गीता has the सूत्रम् 5-4-150 सुहृद्दुर्हृदौ मित्रामित्रयोः (used in step 5) been used?

2. Where else (besides in दुर्हृदाम्) has the सूत्रम् 5-4-150 सुहृद्दुर्हृदौ मित्रामित्रयोः been used in the verses?

3. In which word in the verses does the सूत्रम् 1-4-52 गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ find application?

4. What is the विग्रह: of the compound जितारयः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जितारि’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) as used in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘णिनिँ’ used in the form इन्द्रप्रस्थनिवासिनः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘इन्द्रप्रस्थनिवासिन्’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I don’t consider anyone (to be) an enemy.”

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the augment ‘वुक्’ in the form बभूव (used in the commentary)?

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