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सस्त्रीकाः mNp

Today we will look at the form सस्त्रीकाः  mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.33.5.

ततो दुन्दुभयो नेदुर्निपेतुः पुष्पवृष्टयः । जगुर्गन्धर्वपतयः सस्त्रीकास्तद्यशोऽमलम् ।। १०-३३-५ ।।
वलयानां नूपुराणां किङ्किणीनां च योषिताम् । सप्रियाणामभूच्छब्दस्तुमुलो रासमण्डले ।। १०-३३-६ ।।

तत्तस्य भगवतः श्रीकृष्णस्यामलं निर्मलं यशो जगुरिति ।। ५ ।। सप्रियाणां कृष्णसहितानाम् । तुमुलः संकीर्णः ।। ६ ।।

Gita Press translation – Then sounded kettle-drums (beaten by heavenly beings), showers of flowers fell, and the chiefs of Gandharvas sang His immaculate glory in chorus with their spouses (5). There arose a confused din produced by (the jingling of) bangles and anklets and (the tinkling of) tiny bells attached to the girdle of the cowherd women joined with their beloved Lord in that ring of Rāsa dancers (6).

(1) स्त्रीभि: सह (जगुर्गन्धर्वपतय:) = सस्त्रीकाः (जगुर्गन्धर्वपतय:) – With women (their spouses) (chiefs of Gandharvas sang).
Note: The third case affix used in स्त्रीभि: is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने।

(2) सह + स्त्री भिस् । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 तेन सहेति तुल्ययोगे – The indeclinable सह when it denotes ‘equal connection (with an action)’ optionally compounds with a पदम् ending in a third case affix to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound.

As per 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम्, the term सह gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सह ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term सह is placed in the prior position in the compound.

Note: ‘सह + स्त्री भिस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) सह + स्त्री । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) सह + स्त्री / स + स्त्री । By 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य – When it is a part of a बहुव्रीहि: compound the indeclinable सह is optionally replaced by ‘स’।

= सहस्त्री / सस्त्री ।

(5) सस्त्री कप् । By 5-4-153 नद्‍यृतश्च – Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound whose final member either has the designation नदी or ends in the letter ‘ऋ’ the तद्धित: affix कप्‌ is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

(6) सस्त्रीक । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: The long vowel ‘ई’ preceding the affix ‘क’ (‘कप्’) would have been shortened by the सूत्रम् 7-4-13 केऽणः – A long vowel belonging to the प्रत्याहार: ‘अण्’ is replaced by its short counterpart when followed by the affix ‘क’।
But it is prevented from doing so by the सूत्रम् 7-4-14 न कपि – A long vowel belonging to the प्रत्याहार: ‘अण्’ is not replaced by its short counterpart when followed by the affix ‘कप्’।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example, गन्धर्वपतयः is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सस्त्रीक’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(7) सस्त्रीक + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(8) सस्त्रीक + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(9) सस्त्रीकास् । 6-1-102 प्रथमयो: पूर्वसवर्ण: – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(10) सस्त्रीकाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 5-4-153 नद्‍यृतश्च (used in step 5) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – तपरत्वं स्पष्टार्थम्। Please explain.

2. Where else (besides in सस्त्रीकाः) has the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 तेन सहेति तुल्ययोगे been used in the verses?

3. Can you spot the negation particle ‘नञ्’ in the verses?

4. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The gods along with their spouses came to witness (see) the coronation of Śrī Rāma.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘with (their) spouses’ = ‘स्त्रीभि: सह (आजग्मुर्देवा:)’। Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अभिषेक’ for ‘coronation.’

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Lord Nārāyaṇa along with (goddess) Lakṣmī resides in Vaikuṇṭha.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘along with (goddess) Lakṣmī’ = ‘लक्ष्म्या सह (निवसति भगवान् नारायण:)’।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My brother is not married.” Paraphrase to “My brother is one whose wife does not exist.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one whose wife does not exist’ = ‘अविद्यमाना पत्नी यस्य स:’।

Easy questions:

1. In which word(s) in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि been used?

2. From which verbal root is the form जगु: derived?

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