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Daily Archives: January 4, 2016

शार्ङ्गधन्वा mNs

Today we will look at the form शार्ङ्गधन्वा mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 4.10.30.

ध्रुवे प्रयुक्तामसुरैस्तां मायामतिदुस्तराम् । निशम्य तस्य मुनयः शमाशंसन्समागताः ।। ४-१०-२९ ।।
मुनय ऊचुः
औत्तानपादे भगवांस्तव शार्ङ्गधन्वा देवः क्षिणोत्ववनतार्तिहरो विपक्षान् । यन्नामधेयमभिधाय निशम्य चाद्धा लोकोऽञ्जसा तरति दुस्तरमङ्ग मृत्युम् ।। ४-१०-३० ।।

तस्य शं कल्याणमाशंसन्प्रार्थितवन्तः ।। २९ ।। तव विपक्षान् शत्रून्नाशयतु । अद्धा साक्षात् । अञ्जसा सुखेनैव मृत्युं तरति ।। ३० ।।

Gita Press translation – Seeing the conjuring trick employed by the Yakṣas against Dhruva – a trick which was so very difficult to counteract – a number of hermits that had assembled there prayed for his welfare (in the following words) (29). The hermits said: O son of Uttānapāda may the almighty Lord Viṣṇu (the Wielder of the famous Śārṅga bow), who relieves the agony of His suppliants, wipe out your enemies! By uttering and hearing His very Name people easily succeed in this very life in conquering death, which is so hard to overcome, O dear Dhruva (30).

(1) शार्ङ्गं धनुर्यस्य स: = शार्ङ्गधन्वा – He (Lord Viṣṇu) who has (wields) the bow (named) Śārṅga.

(2) शार्ङ्ग सुँ + धनुस् सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) The adjective ‘शार्ङ्ग सुँ’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘शार्ङ्ग सुँ + धनुस् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) शार्ङ्गधनुस् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) शार्ङ्गधनु अनँङ् । By 5-4-132 धनुषश्च – The ending letter of a बहुव्रीहि: compound which ends in the term ‘धनुस्’ takes the substitution ‘अनँङ्’ and this substitution becomes the ending member of the compound. Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-53 ङिच्च only the ending letter of the compound – and not the entire compound – is replaced by ‘अनँङ्’।
Note: साहचर्यात् ङित्त्वश्रवणाच्चास्यादेशत्वम् – Based on the following two considerations we conclude that the ‘अनँङ्’ prescribed by this सूत्रम् is a आदेश: (substitute) and not a प्रत्यय: (affix) – i) The rules from 5-4-129 through 5-4-150 prescribe substitutions and not affixes. Since 5-4-132 is placed in this section it is logical to expect this सूत्रम् to prescribe a substitution ii) The purpose of the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत् in ‘अनँङ्’ is to facilitate the application of 1-1-53 ङिच्च which only makes sense if ‘अनँङ्’ is a substitute.
Note: The purpose of specifying the substitution ‘अनँङ्’ as being the ending member of the compound is to prevent the application of 5-4-154 शेषाद्विभाषा which only applies if no other समासान्त: operation has been prescribed.
Note: As per the सूत्रम् 5-4-133 वा संज्ञायाम् (which immediately follows the सूत्रम् 5-4-132 in the अष्टाध्यायी), the substitution ‘अनँङ्’ prescribed by 5-4-132 धनुषश्च is made optional if the compound denotes a proper name. Since the compound ‘शार्ङ्गधनुस्’ denotes a proper name (of Lord Viṣṇu) the substitution ‘अनँङ्’ is optional here. In the case where the substitution is not done, the final compound प्रातिपदिकम् is ‘शार्ङ्गधनुस्’ (giving शार्ङ्गधनु: as the प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।)

(6) शार्ङ्गधनु अन् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) शार्ङ्गधन्वन् । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example विष्णुः is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शार्ङ्गधन्वन्’। It declines like ‘यज्वन्’-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(8) शार्ङ्गधन्वन् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। The affix ‘सुँ’ has the designation सर्वनामस्थानम् here as per the सूत्रम् 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows 6-4-8 to apply below.

(9) शार्ङ्गधन्वन् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(10) शार्ङ्गधन्वान् + स् । By 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चाऽसम्बुद्धौ – The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् (base) ending in the letter ‘न्’ gets elongated if it is followed by a non-vocative affix having the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्।

(11) शार्ङ्गधन्वान् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।
Note: Now ‘शार्ङ्गधन्वान्’ gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् । This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(12) शार्ङ्गधन्वा । By 8-2-7 नलोप: प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।


1. Can you spot another (besides शार्ङ्गधन्वा) बहुव्रीहि: compound in the verses?

2. In which sense has the affix ‘क्त’ been used in the form समागताः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘समागत’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?
i. कर्मणि
ii. कर्तरि
iii. भावे
iv. None of the above

3. Which कृत् affix is used to derive the form दुस्तरम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दुस्तर’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) used in the verses?

4. Which वार्तिकम् justifies the use of a third case affix in the form सुखेन used in the commentary?

5. Can you spot the affix ‘क्तवतुँ’ in the commentary?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The one (Cupid) who wields the flower-bow was burnt by the fire which emanated from the third eye of the one (Lord Śiva) who bears the Pināka bow.” Use the verbal root √गम् (गमॢँ गतौ १. ११३७) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘निर्’ for ‘to emanate.’ Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who has (wields) the flower-bow’ = पुष्पं धनुर्यस्य स: and ‘one who has (wields) the Pināka bow’ = पिनाकं धनुर्यस्य स:। Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘तृतीय’ for ‘third.’

Easy questions:

1. Why is the form आशंसन् used in the verses a आर्षप्रयोगः (irregular grammatical usage)?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘उ’ in the form क्षिणोतु?

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January 2016