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चतुर्भुजः mNs

Today we will look at the form चतुर्भुजः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.7.52.

निशम्य भीमगदितं द्रौपद्याश्च चतुर्भुजः । आलोक्य वदनं सख्युरिदमाह हसन्निव ।। १-७-५२ ।।
श्रीभगवानुवाच
ब्रह्मबन्धुर्न हन्तव्य आततायी वधार्हणः । मयैवोभयमाम्नातं परिपाह्यनुशासनम् ।। १-७-५३ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
चतुर्भुजोक्तेरयं भावः – भीमे तं हन्तुं प्रवृत्ते द्रौपद्यां च सहसा तन्निवारणे प्रवृत्तायामुभयोः संवरणायाविष्कृतचतुर्भुज इति । संदिहानस्य सख्युरर्जुनस्य ।। ५२ ।। वधार्हणो वधार्हः । मयैव शास्त्रकृता ‘ब्राह्मणो न हन्तव्यः’ तथा ‘आततायिनमायान्तमपि वेदान्तपारगम् ।। जिघांसन्तं जिघांसीयान्न तेन ब्रह्महा भवेत् ।।’ इति च वदता । तदुभयमप्यनुशासनं परिपालय ।। ५३ ।।

Gita Press translation – Hearing the words of Bhīma as well as of Draupadī, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa (who was distinguished by His four arms) looked into the face of his friend (Arjuna) and uttered the following words, as though smiling : (52) Śrī Kṛṣṇa said: Even a fallen Brāhmaṇa ought not to be slain and a ruffian surely deserves to be killed. Both these precepts have been taught by Me in the scriptures. Therefore, carry out both these commands of Mine (53).

(1) चत्वारो भुजा यस्य स: = चतुर्भुजः (श्रीकृष्णः) – He (Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa) who has four arms.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) चतुर् जस् + भुज जस् । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)
Note: The word बहुव्रीहि: itself is an example of a बहुव्रीहि: compound. It is analyzed as बहवो व्रीहयो यस्य स: – A person who has (owns) a lot of rice.
Note: When forming अव्ययीभाव: and तत्पुरुष: compounds only two terms may be combined at one time, while बहुव्रीहि: compounds may be formed by combining two or more terms simultaneously. For example – पञ्च गावो धनं यस्य = पञ्चगवधन: – One whose wealth is five cows.

See question 2.

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘ चतुर् जस्’ as well as ‘भुज जस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.
The adjective ‘चतुर् जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.
Note: ‘चतुर् जस् + भुज जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) चतुर्भुज । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example श्रीकृष्णः is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चतुर्भुज’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(5) चतुर्भुज + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(6) चतुर्भुज + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) चतुर्भुज: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the compound ‘चतुर्भुज’ been used in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अप्रथमाविभक्त्यर्थे बहुव्रीहिरिति समानाधिकरणानामिति च फलितम्। Please explain.

3. Can you spot a तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ been used in the commentary?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Lord Brahmā (who has four faces) granted many boons to Hiraṇyakaśipu.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who has four faces’ = चत्वारि मुखानि यस्य स:।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Even the gods were afraid of Rāvaṇa (who has ten faces.)” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who has ten faces’ = दशाननानि यस्य स:।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘हि’ in the form परिपाहि?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-112 ख्यत्यात्‌ परस्य been used in the verses?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Where has the compound ‘चतुर्भुज’ been used in the गीता?
    Answer: The compound ‘चतुर्भुज’ has been used in the following verse of the गीता –

    किरीटिनं गदिनं चक्रहस्तम् इच्छामि त्वां द्रष्टुमहं तथैव ।
    तेनैव रूपेण चतुर्भुजेन सहस्रबाहो भव विश्वमूर्ते ॥ ११-४६॥

    चतुर्भुजेन is नपुंसकलिङ्गे तृतीया-एकवचनम् of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चतुर्भुज’। It is qualifying the neuter noun रूपेण।

    The लौकिक-विग्रहः is –
    चत्वारो भुजा यस्य तत् = चतुर्भुजम् (रूपम्) – four-armed (form).

    2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (used in step 2) the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अप्रथमाविभक्त्यर्थे बहुव्रीहिरिति समानाधिकरणानामिति च फलितम्। Please explain.
    Answer: The वृत्तिः of the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे says अनेकं प्रथमान्तमन्यस्य पदस्यार्थे वर्तमानं वा समस्यते स बहुव्रीहिः।
    Hence we can conclude that –
    i) a बहुव्रीहि: compound is employed to denote the sense of a पदम् (which is not part of the compound) whose case ending is other than the nominative. In the present example (चत्वारो भुजा यस्य स:) the पदम् being denoted has a sixth case ending. The विग्रह: of a बहुव्रीहि: compound never has a nominative case ending for the पदम् being denoted. So we could have यम्/येन/यस्मै/यस्मात्/यस्य/यस्मिन् सः but not यः सः

    ii) the constituent members (which all end in the nominative case) of a बहुव्रीहि: compound denote a common item. In the present example (चत्वारो भुजा यस्य स:) both चत्वारः and भुजाः end in the nominative case and refer to same item – ‘the arms.’

    3. Can you spot a तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound in the verses?
    Answer: The compound भीमगदितम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भीमगदित’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) is a तृतीया-तत्पुरुष:।

    The लौकिक-विग्रहः is –
    भीमेन गदितम् = भीमगदितम् – spoken by Bhīma.

    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ’भीमगदित’ is similar to the derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘लोकसमाक्रुष्ट’ as shown in answer to question 4 in the following comment –
    https://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/07/13/पर्णशालाम्-fas/#comment-35404

    As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भीमगदित’ is neuter since the latter member ‘गदित’ (which is an adjective) is used in the neuter here. The entire compound भीमगदितम् is qualifying the neuter noun वचनम् (which is implied but not explicitly mentioned in the verses.)

    4. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ been used in the commentary?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ has been used in the form भीमे (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’भीम’, सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) as well as the corresponding adjective प्रवृत्ते (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रवृत्त’, पुंलिङ्गे सप्तमी-एकवचनम्)। So also in द्रौपद्याम् (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’द्रौपदी’, सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) as well as the corresponding adjective प्रवृत्तायाम् (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रवृत्ता’, सप्तमी-एकवचनम्)।

    As per the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌ – A seventh case affix (‘ङि’, ‘ओस्’, ‘सुप्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes the one (agent/object) whose action (the timing of which is known) gives an indication of (the timing of) another action.

    Note: In the present example, the action of ‘proceeding’ (expressed by प्रवृत्ते (सति)) performed by the agent ’भीम’ (expressed by भीमे) and the action of ‘proceeding’ (expressed by प्रवृत्तायाम् (सत्याम्)) performed by the agent ’द्रौपदी’ (expressed by द्रौपद्याम्) give an indication of the timing of another action which is that of ‘manifesting’ (expressed by ‘आविष्कृत’) performed by the agent Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa (who manifested His four arms.) Hence as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-37 यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम्‌, ’भीम’ and ’द्रौपदी’ – which denote the agents of the indicating action of ‘proceeding’ – take a seventh case affix.

    Note: The action (लक्षण-क्रिया) in the absolute clause is generally expressed by using a participle ending in a कृत् affix. This participle (‘प्रवृत्त’/‘प्रवृत्ता’) – being in grammatical agreement with the प्रातिपदिकम् (‘भीम’/’द्रौपदी’) which denotes the agent of the action – also takes the seventh case affix to give the form प्रवृत्ते/प्रवृत्तायाम्।

    5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Lord Brahmā (who has four faces) granted many boons to Hiraṇyakaśipu.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who has four faces’ = चत्वारि मुखानि यस्य स:।
    Answer: चतुर्मुखः (ब्रह्मा) हिरण्यकशिपवे बहून् वरान् ददौ = चतुर्मुखो हिरण्यकशिपवे बहून् वरान् ददौ ।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Even the gods were afraid of Rāvaṇa (who has ten faces.)” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘one who has ten faces’ = दशाननानि यस्य स:।
    Answer: दशाननात् (रावणात्) देवाः अपि बिभ्युः = दशाननाद् देवा अपि बिभ्युः।

    Easy questions:
    1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘हि’ in the form परिपाहि?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-4-87 सेर्ह्यपिच्च prescribes the substitution ‘हि’ in the form परिपाहि – derived from the verbal root √पा (पा रक्षणे २. ५१).

    As per the सूत्रम् 3-4-87 सेर्ह्यपिच्च – ‘सि’ of लोँट् is substituted by ‘हि’ and it is an अपित् (does not have the letter ‘प्’ as इत्।

    Please see answer to question 3 in the following comment for derivation of the form पाहि – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2011/10/09/शक्नुमः-1ap-लँट्/#comment-1433

    ‘परि’ is the उपसर्गः (ref. 1-4-59 उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे, 1-4-80 ते प्राग्धातोः।)
    परि + पाहि = परिपाहि ।

    2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-112 ख्यत्यात्‌ परस्य been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-1-112 ख्यत्यात्‌ परस्य has been used in the form सख्युः (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सखि’, षष्ठी-एकवचनम्)।

    Please see answer to easy question 2 in the following comment for derivation of the form सख्युः – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/11/14/अब्जम्-nas/#comment-6121

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