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Daily Archives: September 14, 2015

असत्कृत्य ind

Today we will look at the form असत्कृत्य  ind from महाभारतम् 13.53.12.

यदा तौ निर्विकारौ तु लक्षयामास भार्गवः । तत उत्थाय सहसा स्नानशालां विवेश ह ।। १३-५३-११ ।।
कॢप्तमेव तु तत्रासीत् स्नानीयं पार्थिवोचितम् । असत्कृत्य च तत् सर्वं तत्रैवान्तरधीयत ।। १३-५३-१२ ।।
स मुनिः पुनरेवाथ नृपतेः पश्यतस्तदा । नासूयां चक्रतुस्तौ च दम्पती भरतर्षभ ।। १३-५३-१३ ।।

Translation – However when Bhṛgu’s son noticed that the two of them were (still) undisturbed, he rose up all of a sudden and entered the bathing chamber (11). The various articles proper for bathing such as were fit for a king’s use, were ready there in advance. Having disrespected (i.e. having ignored) all those articles, the sage once again disappeared right there even as the king watched. (Even) then, O chief of Bharatas, that royal pair did not show any intolerance (towards him) (12-13).

Note: In the usage मुनिरन्तरधीयत above, the object (‘मुनि’) on which the verbal activity (of concealing) is found, has turned into a subject and the verb (√धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘अन्तर्’) which is transitive has turned in to intransitive as a result. This is called a कर्मकर्तरि प्रयोगः। But this agent (‘मुनि’) is treated as if it were the कर्म (object) as per the सूत्रम् 3-1-87 कर्मवत्‌ कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः – When the agent of a given action behaves in the same way as does the object, the agent is treated as if it were the object. (For the agent to be treated as if it were the object, the action of the agent must be identical with the action located within the object.) This allows for the use of the affix ‘यक्’ (by 3-1-67 सार्वधातुके यक् which has the अनुवृत्तिः of भावकर्मणोः from the prior सूत्रम्) and a आत्मनेपदम् affix (‘त’) – as per 1-3-13 भावकर्मणोः – in the form अन्तरधीयत।

(1) अनादरं कृत्वा = असत्कृत्य – having disrespected.

असत्कृत्य is derived from the verbal root √कृ (डुकृञ् करणे ८. १०) preceded by the term ‘असत्’ (‘असत्’ itself is a नञ्-तत्पुरुषः compound derived as न सत् = असत्)।
‘असत्’ gets the designation गति: here as per 1-4-63 आदरानादरयोः सदसती – The terms ‘सत्’ and ‘असत्’ when denoting ‘respect’ and ‘disrespect’ respectively get the designation ‘गति’ provided they are used in conjunction with a verb.

Note: Besides accent considerations, the purpose of assigning the designation ‘गति’ is to facilitate compound formation prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः which in turn allows for the substitution ‘ल्यप्‌’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ (in step 5.)

Note: Since the term ‘असत्’ has the designation ‘गति’ here it also gets the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः and hence the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्।

(2) कृ + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. In the present example the later action (having the same agent – ‘the sage’) is अन्तरधीयत (‘disappeared.’)

(3) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –

असत् + कृ क्त्वा । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।

(4) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘असत्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘असत्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘असत् + कृ क्त्वा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

(5) असत् + कृ ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6).

Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114.)

(6) असत् + कृ य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying.

(7) असत् + कृ तुँक् य By 6-1-71 ह्रस्वस्य पिति कृति तुक् – When followed by a कृत् affix which is a पित् (has the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्), a short vowel takes the augment ‘तुँक्’। As per 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the augment ‘तुँक्’ joins after the short vowel ‘ऋ’।

(8) असत् + कृ त् य । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

= असत्कृत्य ।

‘असत्कृत्य’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः with the help of 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ। This allows 2-4-82 to apply below.

(9) असत्कृत्य + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) असत्कृत्य । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.


1. In which other word (besides असत्कृत्य) has the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) been used in the verses?

2. Consider the example – सत्कृत्वा कार्यं गतः। Why doesn’t the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) take place here?

3. Which सूत्रम् is used to justify the use of the affix ‘अनीयर्’ used to construct the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्नानीय’ (which appears in the form स्नानीयम् (नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) in the verses)?

4. Can you spot the कृत् affix ‘अ’ in the verses?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-38 षष्ठी चानादरे been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Having disrespected (ignored) the words of his wife, Vālī set out to fight with Sugrīva.” Use the verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७) preceded by the उपसर्गः ‘प्र’ for ‘to set out.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment ‘ईट्’ in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि been used in the verses?

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