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पुरोधाय ind

Today we will look at the form पुरोधाय  ind from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.90.2.

भरद्वाजाश्रमं गत्वा क्रोशादेव नरर्षभः । बलं सर्वमवस्थाप्य जगाम सह मन्त्रिभिः ।। २-९०-१ ।।
पद्भ्यामेव तु धर्मज्ञो न्यस्तशस्त्रपरिच्छदः । वसानो वाससी क्षौमे पुरोधाय पुरोहितम् ।। २-९०-२ ।।
ततः सन्दर्शने तस्य भरद्वाजस्य राघवः । मन्त्रिणस्तानवस्थाप्य जगामानुपुरोहितम् ।। २-९०-३ ।।
वसिष्ठमथ दृष्ट्वैव भरद्वाजो महातपाः । सञ्चचालासनात्तूर्णं शिष्यानर्घ्यमिति ब्रुवन् ।। २-९०-४ ।।

Gita Press translation – Having reached the precincts of the hermitage of Bharadwāja and leaving all his people only a couple of miles away (on this side of the hermitage so as not to cause disturbance to the hermits living peacefully there), Bharata (a jewel among men), for his part, who knew what is right, proceeded (further) with his counselors on foot, placing Sage Vasiṣṭha (his family-priest) ahead and putting on only a pair of silk garments (viz., a loin-cloth and an outer covering), laying aside his weapons and ornaments etc. (1-2) Bidding the aforesaid counselors stay behind, the moment the celebrated Bharadwāja was clearly in sight, Bharata (a scion of Raghu) then proceeded at the heels of Vasiṣṭha (his family-priest) (3). At the very sight of Vasiṣṭha, Bharadwāja, who practiced great austerities, at once hurriedly rose from his seat, asking his pupils to fetch water to wash the hands (of  the distinguished guests) with (4).

(1) अग्रे हित्वा = पुरोधाय – having placed ahead.

पुरोधाय is derived from the verbal root √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११) preceded by the term ‘पुरस्’। ‘पुरस्’ gets the designation गति: here as per 1-4-67 पुरोऽव्ययम् – The term ‘पुरस्’ when used as a अव्ययम् (indeclinable) gets the designation ‘गति’ provided it is used in conjunction with a verb.

Note: Besides accent considerations, the purpose of assigning the designation ‘गति’ is to facilitate compound formation prescribed by the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः which in turn allows for the substitution ‘ल्यप्‌’ (in place of ‘क्त्वा’) prescribed by the सूत्रम् 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ (in step 5.)

Note: Since the term ‘पुरस्’ has the designation ‘गति’ here it also gets the निपात-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-56 प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः and hence the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-37 स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम्।

(2) धा + क्त्वा । By 3-4-21 समानकर्तृकयोः पूर्वकाले – The affix ‘क्त्वा’ is used following a verbal root which denotes a prior action relative to that of another verbal root, provided the agent of both the actions is the same. In the present example the later action (having the same agent – ‘Bharata (a jewel among men)’) is जगाम (‘proceeded.’)

(3) अलौकिक-विग्रह: –

पुरस् + धा + क्त्वा । By 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः – The indeclinable ‘कु’, terms having the designation ‘गति’ (ref. 1-4-60 गतिश्च etc) as well as the terms ‘प्र’ etc. (ref. 1-4-58 प्रादयः) invariably compound with a syntactically related term and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of नित्यम् (invariably) comes down from the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-17 नित्यं क्रीडाजीविकयोः।

(4) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘पुरस्‌’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 (which prescribes the compounding) the term कुगतिप्रादयः ends in the nominative case. Hence the term ‘पुरस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘पुरस् + धा क्त्वा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

(5) पुरस् + धा + ल्यप् । By 7-1-37 समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप्‌ – When the affix ‘क्त्वा’ occurs at the end of a compound, it is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ provided the prior member of the compound is a अव्‍ययम् other than ‘नञ्’ (ref. 2-2-6 नञ्)। The entire term ‘क्त्वा’ is replaced by ‘ल्यप्’ as per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य
Note: As per 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ, the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) inherits the property of being a कित् (having the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) affix with the designation of कृत् (by 3-1-93 कृदतिङ्) and आर्धधातुकम् (by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।)

(6) पुरस् + धा + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

See question 1.

(7) पुररुँ + धा + य । By 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः

(8) पुर उ + धाय । By 6-1-114 हशि च

(9) पुरोधाय । By 6-1-87 आद्‍गुणः

‘पुरोधाय’ gets the अव्यय-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-1-40 क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः with the help of 1-1-56 स्थानिवदादेशोऽनल्विधौ। This allows 2-4-82 to apply below.

(10) पुरोधाय + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(11) पुरोधाय । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after a अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.


1. What prevents the सूत्रम् 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि from applying after step 6 in the above derivation?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 1-4-67 पुरोऽव्ययम् (used in step 1) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – पुरं पुरौ पुर: कृत्वा गत:। Please explain.

3. What is the विग्रह: of the compound अनुपुरोहितम् used in the verses?

4. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शिष्य’ (used in the form शिष्यान् (पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) in the verses) derived?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-3-36 अर्त्तिह्रीव्लीरीक्नूयीक्ष्माय्यातां पुङ्णौ been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Placing Akrūra in front, Śrī Kṛṣṇa along with Balarāma went to Mathurā.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-4-62 कुहोश्चुः been used in the verses?

2. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 6-4-120 अत एकहल्मध्येऽनादेशादेर्लिटि apply in the form सञ्चचाल? (Which condition is not satisfied?)

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