Note: Starting with today’s post we will be discussing the समास-प्रकरणम् – the topic of compounds.
Today we will look at the form कृतपूर्वम् nNs from रघुवंशम् verse 8-52.
मनसापि न विप्रियं मया कृतपूर्वं तव किं जहासि माम् ।
ननु शब्दपतिः क्षितेरहं त्वयि मे भावनिबन्धना रतिः ॥ 8-52॥
मया [कर्त्रा] मनसा [करणेन] अपि तव विप्रियं न कृतपूर्वम् । पूर्वं न कृतमित्यर्थः । सुप्सुपेति समासः । किं केन निमित्तेन मां जहासि त्यजसि ननु [प्रिये] अहं क्षितेः शब्दपतिः शब्दत एव पतिः न त्वर्थत इत्यर्थः । भावनिबन्धना अभिप्रायनिबन्धना स्वभावहेतुका मे रतिः प्रेम तु त्वयि एव अस्तीति शेषः ।।
Translation – Nothing disagreeable to you has been done before by me even mentally; why do you abandon me? Really I am the husband of the earth only in name, and my love tied down by sincerity is for you [alone].
The compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कृतपूर्व’ is a केवल-समास: – also known as सामान्य-समास: or सुप्सुपा or सह सुपा।
(1) As per 2-1-4 सह सुपा – A term ending in a सुँप् affix optionally compounds with another term ending in a सुँप् affix. (This implies that – in the classical language – a तिङन्तं पदम् cannot enter in to a compound.)
Note: सुँप् is the प्रत्याहार: containing the 21 nominal case endings – from ‘सुँ’ to ‘सुप्’ – listed in the सूत्रम् 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्।
Note: The अनुवृत्ति: of सुँप् runs from the सूत्रम् 2-1-2 सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत् स्वरे to all the rules down to 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः।
Note: This सूत्रम् 2-1-4 is interpreted as a अधिकार-सूत्रम् as well as a विधि-सूत्रम्। As a अधिकार-सूत्रम् (a governing rule) it exerts its influence on all the rules which prescribe compounding of one term with another term. This section goes from this सूत्रम् down to 2-2-22 क्त्वा च। As a विधि-सूत्रम् it prescribes (optional) compounding between one term ending in a सुँप् affix with another term ending in a सुँप् affix. When we encounter an accepted usage (शिष्ट-प्रयोग:) of a compound which does not fall in any one of the designated categories like अव्ययीभाव: (ref. 2-1-5 अव्ययीभावः) etc, then we have to use this सूत्रम् 2-1-4 to justify the compounding. A compound thus formed is called a केवल-समास: or सामान्य-समास: or सुप्सुपा or सह सुपा।
Note: वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः – The sentence which explains the meaning of the वृत्ति: (integrated/aggregated word-form) is called विग्रह: (dissolution/analysis.) स च लौकिकोऽलौकिकश्चेति द्विधा । विग्रह: is of two kinds – (i) लौकिक: common/popular and (ii) अलौकिक: (शास्त्रीय:) technical.
Note: There is a अलौकिक-विग्रह: for every compound. But on the other hand a लौकिक-विग्रह: only exists for those compounds where the compounding is optional. In the case of a नित्य-समास: either there is no लौकिक-विग्रह: possible at all or if there is one it has to be अस्वपद-लौकिक-विग्रह: (constructed using words which are not actually present in the compound.)
For the present example, the लौकिक-विग्रह: is as follows –
(2) पूर्वं कृतम् = कृतपूर्वम् meaning ‘(that which has) been done before.’
The अलौकिक-विग्रह: is as follows:
(3) पूर्व अम् कृत सुँ । The compound gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम् by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।
(4) कृतपूर्व । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।
Note: In order to determine which term (‘पूर्व’ or ‘कृत’) should be placed in the prior position in the compound we take the hint from the compound ‘भूतपूर्व’ which पाणिनि: himself has used in the सूत्रम् 5-3-53 भूतपूर्वे चरट्। In the compound ‘भूतपूर्व’, पाणिनि: has placed the participle ‘भूत’ in the prior position and ‘पूर्व’ in the latter position. Following this guideline, in our present example we place the participle ‘कृत’ in the prior position and ‘पूर्व’ in the latter position.
‘कृतपूर्व’ is an adjective which can go in all three genders. It has been used in the neuter gender in the verse.
1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-4 सह सुपा (used in step 1) been used to form a compound in the last fifteen verses of Chapter Eleven of the गीता?
2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-1-4 सह सुपा the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – ‘सह’ इति योगो विभज्यते। सुबन्तं समर्थेन सह समस्यते। योगविभागस्येष्टसिद्ध्यर्थत्वात् कतिपयतिङन्तोत्तरपदोऽयं समास:। स च छन्दस्येव। Please explain.
3. In which sense has a third case affix been used in the form मनसा in the verse? In which sense has it been used in मया?
iv) None of the above.
4. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-3-94 स्त्रियां क्तिन् been used in the verse?
5. In the commentary which other case affix (besides a third case affix) could have been used in the form निमित्तेन (and केन) to convey the same meaning?
6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I haven’t read this book before.” Paraphrase to passive – “This book has not been read by me before.”
1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-10 श्लौ been used in the verse?
2. In which word in the commentary has the affix शप् taken the लुक् elision?