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यथाविधि ind

Today we will look at the form यथाविधि ind from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 3.74.7.

तौ दृष्ट्वा तु तदा सिद्धा समुत्थाय कृताञ्जलिः । पादौ जग्राह रामस्य लक्ष्मणस्य च धीमतः ।। ३-७४-६ ।।
पाद्यमाचमनीयं च सर्वं प्रादाद् यथाविधि । तामुवाच ततो रामः श्रमणीं संशितव्रताम् ।। ३-७४-७ ।।
कच्चित्ते निर्जिता विघ्नाः कच्चित्ते वर्धते तपः । कच्चित्ते नियतः कोप आहारश्च तपोधने ।। ३-७४-८ ।।
कच्चित्ते नियमाः प्राप्ताः कच्चित्ते मनसः सुखम् । कच्चित्ते गुरुशुश्रूषा सफला चारुभाषिणि ।। ३-७४-९ ।।

Gita Press translation – Rising respectfully with joined palms on seeing the two princes, Śabarī (who had attained perfection through Yoga or obstruction) for her part presently clasped the feet of Śrī Rāma and the prudent Lakṣmaṇa and offered (to honored guests) with due ceremony water to bathe their feet and rinse their mouth with and every (other) form of hospitality, Śrī Rāma then spoke (as follows) to the aforesaid ascetic woman, who was intent upon virtue :- (6-7) ‘Have all impediments (to the practice of your austerities) been thoroughly overcome by you? Is your asceticism (steadily) growing? Has anger been fully controlled by you as well as your diet, O lady with asceticism (alone) as your wealth? (8) Are (all) your religious vows completely observed and has satisfaction come to your mind? Has your attendance on your preceptor borne fruit, O lady of pleasing speech?’ (9)

These verses have appeared previously in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2013/03/11/आहारः-mns/

(1) लौकिक-विग्रह: –
विधिमनतिक्रम्य = यथाविधि = not transgressing the rule.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –

(2) विधि अम् + यथा । By 2-1-6 अव्ययं विभक्तिसमीपसमृद्धिव्यृद्ध्यर्थाभावात्ययासम्प्रतिशब्दप्रादुर्भावपश्चाद्यथानुपूर्व्ययौगपद्यसादृश्यसम्पत्तिसाकल्यान्तवचनेषु – A अव्ययम्‌ (indeclinable) used in any one of the following meanings invariably compounds with a (syntactically related) term ending in a सुँप् affix to yield a अव्ययीभाव: compound –
(i) विभक्ति: – a case affix
(ii) समीपम्‌ – close by
(iii) समृद्धि: (ऋद्धेराधिक्यम्‌) – prosperity
(iv) व्यृद्धि: (विगता ऋद्धि:) – adversity
(v) अर्थाभाव: – absence of something
(vi) अत्यय: (ध्वंस:) – disappearance (passing away)
(vii) असम्प्रति – presently inappropriate
(viii) शब्दप्रादुर्भाव: – manifestation of a sound
(ix) पश्चाद् – following
(x) यथा (योग्यतावीप्सापदार्थानतिवृत्तिसादृश्यानि यथार्था:) – appropriateness, repetition, non-transgression of something, similarity
(xi) आनुपूर्व्यम्‌ – in orderly succession
(xii) यौगपद्यम्‌ – simultaneity
(xiii) सादृश्यम्‌ – similarity/resemblance. Note: यथार्थत्वेनैव सिद्धे पुन: सादृश्यग्रहणं गुणभूतेऽपि सादृश्ये यथा स्यादित्येवमर्थम्‌ – सादृश्यम्‌ is mentioned here again (even though it is already given as one of the meanings of यथा in (x) above) in order to allow compounding even when सादृश्यम्‌ is used in a secondary (adjectival) sense
(xiv) सम्पत्ति: (अनुरूप आत्मभाव:) – befitting state
(xv) साकल्यम्‌ – totality/completeness
(xvi) अन्त: – termination/end

Note: As per some grammarians (particularly नागेश:) – एतत्सूत्रोपात्तानामव्ययानां नाव्ययीभाव: – The अव्ययानि that are specifically mentioned in this सूत्रम्‌ cannot be used (in their own meaning) to form a अव्ययीभाव: compound using this सूत्रम्‌। Hence the अव्ययं पश्चात् itself cannot be compounded in the meaning of पश्चात्। Similarly the अव्ययं युगपत् itself cannot be compounded in the meaning of यौगपद्यम्‌। And the next सूत्रम् 2-1-7 यथासादृश्ये should be used to compound the अव्ययं यथा itself in the meaning of यथा।

(3) यथा + विधि अम् । By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् which prescribes a compound gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’। Here the term ‘अव्ययम्’ in the सूत्रम् 2-1-6 ends in the nominative case. Therefore the अव्ययम् ‘यथा’ gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ by 1-2-43. Hence ‘यथा’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.
Note: ‘यथा + विधि अम्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) यथा + विधि = यथाविधि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) यथाविधि + सुँ (default) । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌। Note: By 1-1-41 अव्ययीभावश्च – The compounds that are अव्ययीभाव-समासाः are also designated as indeclinables. This allows 2-4-82 to apply in the following step.

(6) यथाविधि । By 2-4-82 अव्ययादाप्सुपः – The feminine affix आप् and सुँप् affixes that are prescribed after an अव्ययम् take the लुक् elision.


1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-1-6 अव्ययं विभक्तिसमीपसमृद्धिव्यृद्ध्यर्थाभावात्ययासम्प्रतिशब्दप्रादुर्भावपश्चाद्यथानुपूर्व्ययौगपद्यसादृश्यसम्पत्तिसाकल्यान्तवचनेषु (used in step 2) been used in the last five verses of Chapter Twelve of the गीता?

2. Which कृत् affix is used to derived the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विधि’ (used as part of the compound यथाविधि)?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-2-78 सुप्यजातौ णिनिस्ताच्छील्ये been used in the verses?

4. Can you spot the substitution ‘ल्यप्’ (in the place of the affix ‘क्त्वा’) in the verses?

5. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the affix ‘अनीयर्’ in the form आचमनीयम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आचमनीय’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“I did the work in the (proper) manner.” Paraphrase to “I did the work not transgressing the (proper) manner.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-4-77 गातिस्थाघुपाभूभ्यः सिचः परस्मैपदेषु been used in the verses?

2. Can you spot the substitution ‘णल्’ (in the place of ‘तिप्’) in the verses?

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