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सार्जुनः mNs

Today we will look at the form सार्जुनः  mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 1.12.36.

आहूतो भगवान्राज्ञा याजयित्वा द्विजैर्नृपम् । उवास कतिचिन्मासान्सुहृदां प्रियकाम्यया ।। १-१२-३५ ।।
ततो राज्ञाभ्यनुज्ञातः कृष्णया सह बन्धुभिः । ययौ द्वारवतीं ब्रह्मन्सार्जुनो यदुभिर्वृतः ।। १-१२-३६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
No commentary on these verses.

Gita Press translation – Having enabled the king to perform the sacrifices with the help of the twice-born (the Brāhmaṇas), Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who had been invited for the occasion, stayed with him for some months for the gratification of his friends and relations (35). Then, with the leave of the king and his younger brothers, as well as of Kṛṣṇā (queen Draupadī), O Śaunaka, He proceeded to Dwārāvatī (Dwārakā) accompanied by Arjuna and surrounded by the Yadu chiefs (Uddhava, Sātyaki and others) (36).

(1) अर्जुनेन सह (ययौ श्रीकृष्णः) = सार्जुन: (ययौ श्रीकृष्णः) – With Arjuna (Śrī Kṛṣṇa proceeded).
Note: The third case affix used in अर्जुनेन is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने।

(2) सह + अर्जुन टा । As per the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 तेन सहेति तुल्ययोगे – The indeclinable सह when it denotes ‘equal connection (with an action)’ optionally compounds with a पदम् ending in a third case affix to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound.

As per 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् the term सह gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-28 (which prescribes the compounding) the term सह ends in the nominative case. And hence as per 2-2-30 the term सह is placed in the prior position in the compound.

Note: ‘सह + अर्जुन टा’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः to apply in the next step.

(3) सह + अर्जुन । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(4) सह + अर्जुन / स + अर्जुन । By 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य – When it is a part of a बहुव्रीहि: compound the indeclinable सह is optionally replaced by ‘स’। Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire term सह is replaced by ‘स’।

(5) सहार्जुन / सार्जुन । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example सार्जुनः is qualifying श्रीकृष्णः। Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सार्जुन’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(6) सार्जुन + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(7) सार्जुन + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(8) सार्जुन: । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य (used in step 3) been used in the first five verses of Chapter Seven of the गीता?

2. From which सूत्रम् does the अनुवृत्ति: of सहस्य सः come in to the सूत्रम् 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य?

3. From which verbal root is the form आहूत: (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आहूत’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) derived?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘अ’ in the verses?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Knowledge shines only when accompanied by humility.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘accompanied by humility’ (knowledge shines) = ‘विनयेन सह’ (ज्ञानं शोभते)।

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“The gods along with the demons churned nectar from the ocean.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘along with the demons’ (the gods churned) = ‘दानवै: सह’ (देवा ममन्थु:)।

Easy questions:

1. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-1-17 लिट्यभ्यासस्योभयेषाम् been used?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘औ’ (in place of the affix णल्) in the form ययौ?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य (used in step 3) been used in the first five verses of Chapter Seven of the गीता?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य has been used in the form सविज्ञानम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ’सविज्ञान’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे द्वितीया-एकवचनम्) in the following verse of the गीता –

    ज्ञानं तेऽहं सविज्ञानमिदं वक्ष्याम्यशेषतः |
    यज्ज्ञात्वा नेह भूयोऽन्यज्ज्ञातव्यमवशिष्यते || 7-2||

    विज्ञानेन सह (ज्ञानं वक्ष्यामि) = सविज्ञानम् (ज्ञानं वक्ष्यामि) – (I shall describe ज्ञानम्) along with विज्ञानम्।
    Note: In this context, ज्ञानम् and विज्ञानम् may be translated as ‘spiritual wisdom’ and ‘practical knowledge/realization’ respectively.
    Note: The third case affix used in विज्ञानेन is as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने।

    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ’सविज्ञान’ is similar to the derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सार्जुन’ as shown in the post, except that there is no application of 6-1-101 after step 4.

    The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example सविज्ञानम् is qualifying ज्ञानम्। Hence we assign the neuter gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘सविज्ञान’। It declines like वन-शब्द:।

    2. From which सूत्रम् does the अनुवृत्ति: of सहस्य सः come into the सूत्रम् 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य?
    Answer: The अनुवृत्ति: of सहस्य सः comes in to the सूत्रम् 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य from the सूत्रम् 6-3-78 सहस्य सः संज्ञायाम्।

    3. From which verbal root is the form आहूत: (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आहूत’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) derived?
    Answer: The form आहूत: is derived from the verbal root √ह्वे (ह्वेञ् स्पर्धायां शब्दे च १. ११६३) preceded by the उपसर्गः ’आङ्’।

    ह्वा + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा, 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः। Note: By 6-1-45 आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति the ending letter ‘ए’ of the verbal root√ह्वे is replaced by the letter ‘आ’|
    = ह्वा + त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात् stops the augment ’इट्’ (for ’त’) which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः।
    = ह् उआ + त । By 6-1-15 वचिस्वपियजादीनां किति।
    = ह् उ + त । By 6-1-108 सम्प्रसारणाच्च।
    = हूत । By 6-4-2 हलः|

    ‘हूत’ is compounded with the उपसर्गः ‘आङ्’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    आङ् + हूत = आहूत । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    ‘आहूत’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    4. Can you spot the affix ‘अ’ in the verses?
    Answer: The affix ‘अ’ occurs in the form प्रियकाम्यया (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’प्रियकाम्या’, तृतीया-एकवचनम्)।

    Please see the following post for the derivation of the form प्रियकाम्यया – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/08/02/प्रियकाम्यया-fis

    5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Knowledge shines only when accompanied by humility.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘accompanied by humility’ (knowledge shines) = ‘विनयेन सह’ (ज्ञानं शोभते)।
    Answer: सहविनयम्/सविनयम् एव ज्ञानम् शोभते = सहविनयमेव/सविनयमेव ज्ञानं शोभते।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “The gods along with the demons churned nectar from the ocean.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘along with the demons’ (the gods churned) = ‘दानवै: सह’ (देवा ममन्थु:)।
    Answer: सहदानवाः/सदानवाः देवाः समुद्रात् अमृतम् ममन्थु: = सहदानवा/सदानवा देवाः समुद्रादमृतं ममन्थु:।

    Easy questions:
    1. In which word in the verses has the सूत्रम् 6-1-17 लिट्यभ्यासस्योभयेषाम् been used?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-1-17 लिट्यभ्यासस्योभयेषाम् has been used in the form उवास – derived from the verbal root √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०).

    Please see the answer to question 5 in the following comment for the derivation of the form उवास – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/08/02/प्रियकाम्यया-fis/#comment-4122

    2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘औ’ (in place of the affix णल्) in the form ययौ?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-1-34 आत औ णलः prescribes the substitution ‘औ’ in the form ययौ – derived from the verbal root √या (या प्रापणे २. ४४).

    Please see the following post for the derivation of the form ययौ – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2011/12/28/प्रययौ-3as-लिँट्/

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