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Daily Archives: December 21, 2015

गवाक्षाः mNp

Today we will look at the form गवाक्षाः mNp from रघुवंशम् 16.20.

रात्रावनाविष्कृतदीपभासः कान्तामुखश्रीवियुता दिवापि ।
तिरस्क्रियन्ते कृमितन्तुजालैर्विच्छिन्नधूमप्रसरा गवाक्षाः॥ 16-20॥

रात्रावनाविष्कृतदीपभासः । दीपप्रभाशून्या इत्यर्थः । दिवापि दिवसेऽपि कान्तामुखानां श्रिया कान्त्या वियुता रहिता विच्छिन्नो नष्टो धूमप्रसरो येषां ते गवाक्षाः कृमितन्तुजालैर्लूतातन्तुवितानैस्तिरस्क्रियन्ते छाद्यन्ते ।।

Translation – The round windows are displaying no light of lamps at night and are void of the luster of the faces of the beautiful ladies during the day too. Their diffusion of smoke has ended and they are (now) being covered by cob-webs (20).

(1) गवामक्षीव = गवाक्ष: – round window (which is like the bulls’ eye.)
Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गो’ also has the meaning ‘ray’ (in addition to the more common meaning of ‘cow/bull’). Hence गवामक्षि may be interpreted as गवाम् (= किरणानाम्) अक्षि (= रन्ध्रम्) = an opening for the rays.

(2) गो आम् + अक्षि सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By the सूत्रम् 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – ‘गो आम्’ (which ends in a sixth case affix) gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 षष्ठी (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case.
And hence as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ the term ‘गो आम्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound. Note: ‘गो आम् + अक्षि सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च । This allows the सूत्रम् 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) गो + अक्षि । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्। Note: Now the term ‘गो’ has the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-1-123 to apply in the next step.

(5) ग् अवङ् + अक्षि । By 6-1-123 अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य – When followed by a vowel, the term ‘गो’ is optionally replaced by ‘अवङ्’ provided ‘गो’ ends in a letter belonging to the प्रत्याहार: ‘एङ्’ and this letter is at the end of a पदम्।
Note: The substitution ‘अवङ्’ takes place only in the opinion of the teacher स्फोटायन: (and not in the opinion of other teachers.) Hence it implies that the substitution is optional.
Note: As per the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-53 ङिच्च the substitution ‘अवङ्’ comes in place of only the ending letter (‘ओ’) of ‘गो’।

See questions 1, 2 and 3.

(6) ग् अव + अक्षि । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

(7) गवाक्षि । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

(8) गवाक्षि + अच् । By 5-4-76 अक्ष्णोऽदर्शनात्‌ – Following a compound ending in ‘अक्षि’ – when not denoting an eye – the तद्धित: affix अच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.
Note: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दर्शन’ as used in this सूत्रम् is derived by using the affix ल्युट् (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-3-117 करणाधिकरणयोश्च) to denote the instrument of the action (of seeing.) दृश्यतेऽनेनेति दर्शनम् – that by means of which something is seen is called दर्शनम्। Hence it stands for an eye.

(9) गवाक्षि + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘गवाक्षि’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(10) गवाक्ष् + अ । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= गवाक्ष ।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गवाक्ष’ should have been neuter since the latter member ‘अक्षि’ of the compound is neuter. But पुंस्त्वं लोकात् – this compound is used in the masculine gender in the language. It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(11) गवाक्ष + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(12) गवाक्ष + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(13) गवाक्षास् । 6-1-102 प्रथमयो: पूर्वसवर्ण: – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(14) गवाक्षाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-1-123 अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य (used in step 5) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – विभाषानुवृत्तेः स्फोटायनग्रहणं पूजार्थम्। Please explain.

2. Commenting on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – अतीति निवृत्तम्। The तत्त्वबोधिनी expands on this by saying – अत्राचीत्यनुवर्तते। ‘अतीति तु निवृत्तम्’ इत्यत्र व्याख्यानमेव शरणम्। Please explain.

3. Commenting further on the same सूत्रम् the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी says – व्यवस्थितविभाषया गवाक्ष:। Please explain.

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the (optional) substitution ‘स्’ (in the place of the विसर्ग:) in the form तिरस्क्रियन्ते?

5. What is the विग्रह: of the compound विच्छिन्नधूमप्रसरा: used in the verse?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“In our village, all the houses have beautiful round windows.” Paraphrase to – “In our village, of all the houses there are beautiful round windows.”

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the substitution ‘रिङ्’ in the verse?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the affix ‘णिच्’ in the form छाद्यन्ते used in the commentary?

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