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दुर्मेधाः mNs

Today we will look at the form दुर्मेधाः mNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 10.44.33.

निःसारयत दुर्वृत्तौ वसुदेवात्मजौ पुरात् । धनं हरत गोपानां नन्दं बध्नीत दुर्मतिम् ।। १०-४४-३२ ।।
वसुदेवस्तु दुर्मेधा हन्यतामाश्वसत्तमः । उग्रसेनः पिता चापि सानुगः परपक्षगः ।। १०-४४-३३ ।।

No commentary on these verses.

Gita Press translation – “Drive out of the city the two ill-behaved sons of Vasudeva; confiscate the wealth of the Gopas and put in bonds the wicked Nanda (32). On the other hand, let Vasudeva of evil mind, the vilest of all, be made short work of at once and so also Ugrasena, my father, who has sided with my enemy, along with his followers.” (33)

(1) दु: (दुष्टा) मेधा यस्य स: = दुर्मेधा: – He whose intelligence/mind is evil.

(2) दुस् + मेधा सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) The adjective ‘दुस्’ (meaning ‘दुष्टा’) is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.

Note: ‘दुस् + मेधा सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) दुस् + मेधा । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) दुर् + मेधा । By 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(6) दुर्मेधा + असिँच् । By 5-4-122 नित्यमसिच् प्रजामेधयोः – Following a बहुव्रीहि: compound whose latter member is either ‘प्रजा’ or ‘मेधा’ and whose prior member is either (the negation particle) ‘नञ्’ or ‘दुस्’ or ‘सु’ the तद्धित: affix असिँच् is prescribed and this affix becomes the ending member of the compound.

(7) दुर्मेधा + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

Note: The अङ्गम् ‘दुर्मेधा’ has the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-18 यचि भम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-148 to apply in the next step.

(8) दुर्मेध् + अस् । By 6-4-148 यस्येति च – When the letter ‘ई’ or a ‘तद्धित’ affix follows, the (ending) इ-वर्ण: (letter ‘इ’ or ‘ई’) or the (ending) अवर्ण: (letter ‘अ’ or ‘आ’) of a अङ्गम् with the भ-सञ्ज्ञा takes elision (लोपः)।

= दुर्मेधस् ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example वसुदेव: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘दुर्मेधस्’। It declines like ‘वेधस्’-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम् ।

(9) दुर्मेधस् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(10) दुर्मेधस् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(11) दुर्मेधास् + स् । By 6-4-14 अत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः – When the ‘सुँ’ affix which is not सम्बुद्धिः follows, a base that ends in ‘अतुँ’ or a base that ends in ‘अस्’ which is not of a verbal root, has its penultimate letter elongated.

(12) दुर्मेधास् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल् – A single letter affix ‘सुँ’, ‘ति’ or ‘सि’ is dropped following a base ending in a consonant or in the long feminine affix ‘ङी’ or ‘आप्’।
Note: Now ‘दुर्मेधास्’ gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् । This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-66 to apply in the next step.

(13) दुर्मेधाः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ – 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Where has the सूत्रम् 5-4-122 नित्यमसिच् प्रजामेधयोः (used in step 6) been used (by extension) in verses 20-25 of Chapter Seven of the गीता?

2. In which word in the verses has the affix ‘क’ been used?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-3-82 वोपसर्जनस्य been used in the verses?

4. Which वार्तिकम् may be used to justify the use of the affix ‘ड’ in the compound परपक्षगः?

5. In the verses can you spot a compound in which the पूर्वपदम् (the first member) has taken पुंवद्भाव: (a masculine-like form)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
On hearing the words of Śrī Hanumān, the enraged Rāvaṇa ordered, “Kill this evil-minded monkey.” Paraphrase to – On hearing the words of Śrī Hanumān, the enraged Rāvaṇa ordered, “Let this evil-minded monkey be killed.” Use the verbal root √क्रुध् (क्रुधँ क्रोधे (कोपे) ४. ८६) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘सम्’ for ‘to be enraged’ and the verbal root √दिश् (दिशँ अतिसर्जने ६. ३) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘आङ्’ (‘आ’) for ‘to order.’

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘आम्‌’ in the form हन्यताम्‌?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-113 ई हल्यघोः been used in the verses?

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