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कृतकृत्यम् mAs

Today we will look at the form कृतकृत्यम्  mAs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.20.49.

येऽहीयन्तामुतः केशा अहयस्तेऽङ्ग जज्ञिरे । सर्पाः प्रसर्पतः क्रूरा नागा भोगोरुकन्धराः ।। ३-२०-४८ ।।
स आत्मानं मन्यमानः कृतकृत्यमिवात्मभूः । तदा मनून्ससर्जान्ते मनसा लोकभावनान् ।। ३-२०-४९ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
अमुतोऽमुष्माद्देहाद्ये केशा अहीयन्त प्रच्युतास्तेऽहयो जाताः । प्रसर्पतः पादाद्याकुञ्चनैः प्रचलतोऽमुष्मात्सर्पाः । अत एव अगा न भवन्तीति नागाः । अतिवेगवन्त इत्यर्थः । भोगवतो जातत्वाद्भोगेन फणेनोरुर्विस्तीर्णा कन्धरा येषाम् । सर्वे चैते तत्क्रोधयोगात्क्रूराः । तेषामवान्तरजातिभेदः सर्पसिद्धान्ते प्रसिद्धः ।। ४८ ।। यदा मन्यमानोऽभूत्तदा मनून्ससर्ज ।। ४९ ।।

Gita Press translation – The hair that dropped from that body (as he apparently pulled them in a fit of excitement) were transformed into snakes, dear Vidura; while, even as the body crawled along (with its hands and feet contracted), there sprang from it ferocious serpents and Nāgas with their necks dilated in the form of hood (48). One day, Brahmā (the self-born creator) felt as if the object of his life had been accomplished; at that time he evolved out of his mind, last of all, the Manus, who promote the welfare of the world (49).

(1) कृतं कृत्यं येन स: = कृतकृत्य: – The one by whom that which is fit to be done has been done. (Hence it means one who is fulfilled/accomplished.)

(2) कृत सुँ + कृत्य सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘कृत सुँ’ as well as ‘कृत्य सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.

The सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ also cannot help us here in determining which term should be placed in the prior position in the compound because both ‘कृत’ and ‘कृत्य’ are adjectives. Since ‘कृत’ ends in the affix ‘क्त’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-102 निष्ठा) it is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-36 निष्ठा – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound a term which ends in a निष्ठा affix (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-102 निष्ठा) takes the prior position.
Note: This सूत्रम् 2-2-36 निष्ठा is not to be confused with the identically worded सूत्रम् 3-2-102 निष्ठा।
Note: With the help of the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-72 येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य we understand that the term निष्ठा used in this सूत्रम् 2-2-36 stands for निष्ठान्तम् (a term ending in a निष्ठा affix.)

Note: ‘कृत सुँ + कृत्य सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) कृत + कृत्य । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

= कृतकृत्य ।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example ‘आत्मन्’ is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कृतकृत्य’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-एकवचनम्।

(5) कृतकृत्य + अम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌।
Note: 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘म्’ of the affix ‘अम्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) कृतकृत्यम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix ‘अम्’ there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.

Questions:

1. Where does the बहुव्रीहि: compound ‘कृतकृत्य’ occur in the गीता?

2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-36 निष्ठा (used in step 3) the काशिका says – ननु च विशेषणमेवात्र निष्ठा? नैष नियमः, विशेषणविशेष्यभावस्य विवक्षानिबन्धनत्वात्। Please explain.

3. What type of समास: is लोकभावनान् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘लोकभावन’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?
i. कर्मधारय:
ii. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. उपपद-तत्पुरुष:

4. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of ‘लँट्’) been used?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the form भोगवत: used in the commentary? Which one justifies in जातत्वात्?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“No one can become fulfilled without the grace of the Lord.”

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ई’ in the form अहीयन्त used in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-81 लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच् been used in the verses?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Where does the बहुव्रीहि: compound ‘कृतकृत्य’ occur in the गीता?
    Answer: The बहुव्रीहि: compound ‘कृतकृत्य’ occurs in the गीता in the following verse –

    इति गुह्यतमं शास्त्रमिदमुक्तं मयानघ |
    एतद्‌बुद्‌ध्वा बुद्धिमान्स्यात्कृतकृत्यश्च भारत || 15-20||

    2. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 2-2-36 निष्ठा (used in step 3) the काशिका says – ननु च विशेषणमेवात्र निष्ठा? नैष नियमः, विशेषणविशेष्यभावस्य विवक्षानिबन्धनत्वात्। Please explain.
    Answer: ननु च विशेषणमेवात्र निष्ठा – What is the need for the सूत्रम् 2-2-36 निष्ठा given that a term which ends in a निष्ठा affix has to be an adjective and therefore the prior सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ will apply to prescribe the पूर्वनिपातनम् (placement in the prior position in the compound)?
    नैष नियमः – No, it is not a hard and fast rule that a term which ends in a निष्ठा affix is necessarily an adjective to the other term in a बहुव्रीहि: compound, because विशेषणविशेष्यभावस्य विवक्षानिबन्धनत्वात् – the determination of which term is the adjective and which term is the one being qualified depends on the intention of the speaker.
    As in the present example ‘कृतकृत्य’, either term – ‘कृत’ or कृत्य’ – can serve as an adjective to other. Hence the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ cannot help us here in determining which term should be placed in the prior position in the compound. Therefore in such a situation the सूत्रम् 2-2-36 निष्ठा is required to necessarily place the term which ends in a निष्ठा affix in the prior position in a बहुव्रीहि: compound.

    3. What type of समास: is लोकभावनान् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘लोकभावन’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?
    i. कर्मधारय:
    ii. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
    iii. बहुव्रीहि:
    iv. उपपद-तत्पुरुष:

    Answer: The लौकिक-विग्रह: is –
    लोकस्य भावनः = लोकभावनः – one who promotes the welfare of the world . Note: षष्ठी-विभक्ति: is used in लोकस्य as per 2-3-65 कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति।

    The कृत् affix ‘ल्यु‘ is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भावन’ – derived from the causative form of the verbal root √भू (भू सत्तायाम् १. १).

    भावयतीति भावनः।

    भू + णिच् । By 3-1-26 हेतुमति च।
    = भू + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = भौ + इ । By 7-2-115 अचो ञ्णिति।
    = भावि । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः।
    ‘भावि’ gets the धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।

    The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भावन’ is derived as follows:
    भावि + ल्यु । By 3-1-134 नन्दिग्रहिपचादिभ्यो ल्युणिन्यचः।
    Note: As per the सूत्रम् 3-4-67 कर्तरि कृत्‌ the affixes prescribed by the above सूत्रम् are used to denote the agent of the action.
    = भावि + यु । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = भावि + अन । By 7-1-1 युवोरनाकौ, 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य।
    = भाव् + अन । By 6-4-51 णेरनिटि।
    = भावन । ‘भावन’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम् by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    अलौकिक-विग्रह: of the compound is –
    लोक ङस् + भावन सुँ । By 2-2-8 षष्ठी – A पदम् ending in a sixth case affix optionally compounds with a (syntactically related) पदम् ending in a सुँप् affix and the resulting compound gets the designation तत्पुरुष:।
    By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘लोक ङस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-8 (which prescribes the compounding) the term षष्ठी ends in the nominative case. Hence ‘लोक ङस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌।
    Note: ‘लोक ङस् + भावन सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = लोक + भावन । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = लोकभावन ।
    As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘लोकभावन’ is an adjective since the latter member ‘भावन’ of the compound is an adjective. In the masculine gender, the compound declines like राम-शब्द:। पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम् is लोकभावनान्। In the present example, it is qualifying the masculine noun मनून्।

    4. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of ‘लँट्’) been used?
    Answer: The substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in place of ‘लँट्’) has been used in the form प्रसर्पतः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘प्रसर्पत्’, पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्) – derived from the verbal root √सृप् (सृपॢँ गतौ १.११३८).

    सृप् + लृँट् । By 3-3-13 लृट् शेषे च।
    = सृप् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = सृप् + शतृँ । By 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे – The affix ‘लँट्’ is replaced by ‘शतृँ’/’शानच्’ as long as the derived word is in agreement with (has the same reference as) a word which ends in a nominal ending other than the nominative.
    Note: Since the verbal root √सृप् is devoid of any indications for bringing in a आत्मनेपदम् affix, it takes a परस्मैपदम् affix as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्। As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, ‘शतृँ’ has the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा while as per 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, ‘शानच्’ has the आत्मनेपद-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore the verbal root √सृप् takes the affix ‘शतृँ’ (and not ‘शानच्’) here.
    = सृप् + अत् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = सृप् + शप् + अत् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्।
    = सृप् + अ + अत् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = सर्प् + अ + अत् । By 7-3-86 पुगन्तलघूपधस्य च, 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः।
    = सर्पत् । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे।

    प्र + सर्पत् । ‘सर्पत्’ is compounded with the उपसर्गः ‘प्र’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    = प्रसर्पत् ।
    Note: ‘प्रसर्पत्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the form भोगवत: used in the commentary? Which one justifies in जातत्वात्?
    Answer: The use of a fifth case affix in the form भोगवत: (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भोगवत्’, पुंलिङ्गे पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्) is justified by the सूत्रम् 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी – A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is used to denote the अपादानम् (that from which detachment/ablation takes place) provided it has not been expressed otherwise.
    Note: The सूत्रम् 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी applies here since ‘भोगवत्’ (Brahmā – who had a coiled body) – who is the source of the नागाः – gets the designation अपादानम् as per the सूत्रम् 1-4-30 जनिकर्तुः प्रकृतिः – The कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes a cause from which something/someone takes birth is designated as अपादानम्।

    The use of a fifth case affix in the form जातत्वात् (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जातत्व’, पञ्चमी-एकवचनम्) is justified by the सूत्रम् 2-3-25 विभाषा गुणेऽस्त्रियाम्‌ – A fifth case affix (‘ङसिँ’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भ्यस्’) is optionally used following a non-feminine प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes a quality being a cause/reason.
    Note: When the optional fifth case affix is not used, a third case affix is used as per 2-3-23 हेतौ। In the present example ‘जातत्व’ is the non-feminine प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes a quality being a cause/reason for the भोगोरुकन्धराः (‘with their necks dilated in the form of a hood.’)

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “No one becomes fulfilled without the grace of the Lord.”
    Answer: ईश्वरस्य कृपया विना न कः अपि कृतकृत्यः भवति = ईश्वरस्य कृपया विना न कोऽपि कृतकृत्यो भवति।

    Easy questions:
    1. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘ई’ in the form अहीयन्त used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि prescribes the substitution ‘ई’ in the form अहीयन्त – derived from the verbal root √हा (ओँहाक् त्यागे ३. ९).

    The विवक्षा is लँङ्, कर्मणि प्रयोग:, प्रथमपुरुष:, बहुवचनम्।
    हा + लँङ् । By 3-2-111 अनद्यतने लङ्।
    = हा + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = हा + झ । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-13 भावकर्मणोः।
    = हा + यक् + झ । By 3-1-67 सार्वधातुके यक्।
    = हा + य + झ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = ही + य + झ । By 6-4-66 घुमास्थागापाजहातिसां हलि the letter ‘आ’ of the verbal roots having the घु-सञ्ज्ञा and the verbal roots √मा [मेङ् प्रणिदाने १. १११६, मा माने २. ५७, माङ् माने शब्दे च ३. ७, माङ् माने ४. ३७], √स्था [ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७], √गा [गै शब्दे १. १०६५, गाङ् गतौ १. ११०१, गा स्तुतौ ३. २६ as well as the गा-आदेश: done in place of इण् गतौ २. ४० and इक् स्मरणे (नित्यमधिपूर्वः) २. ४१, as well as the गाङ्-आदेश: in the place of इङ् अध्ययने (नित्यमधिपूर्वः) २. ४२], √पा [पा पाने १. १०७४], √हा [ओँहाक् त्यागे ३. ९] and √सो [षो अन्तकर्मणि ४. ४२] gets the letter ‘ई’ as replacement, when followed by a हलादि: (beginning with a consonant) आर्धधातुक-प्रत्ययः which is a कित् (has the letter ‘क्’ as a इत्) or a ङित् (has the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत्)।
    = ही + य + अन्त । By 7-1-3 झोऽन्तः।
    = हीयन्त । By 6-1-97 अतो गुणे।
    = अट् हीयन्त । By 6-4-71 लुङ्लङ्लृङ्क्ष्वडुदात्तः, 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ।
    = अहीयन्त । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।

    2. Where has the सूत्रम् 3-4-81 लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच् been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 3-4-81 लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच् has been used in the form जज्ञिरे – derived from the verbal root √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४).

    As per the सूत्रम् 3-4-81 लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच् – When they come in place of लिँट्, the affixes ‘त’ and ‘झ’ take the substitutions ‘एश्’ and ‘इरेच्’ respectively (ref. 1-3-10 यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम्।)

    Please see answer to question 4 in the following comment for derivation of the form जज्ञिरे – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/03/08/जनयिष्यथ-2ap-लृँट्/#comment-3453

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