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उद्यतास्त्राः mNp

Today we will look at the form उद्यतास्त्राः  mNp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 6.11.17.

ह्रीश्रीदयाकीर्तिभिरुज्झितं त्वां स्वकर्मणा पुरुषादैश्च गर्ह्यम् । कृच्छ्रेण मच्छूलविभिन्नदेहमस्पृष्टवह्निं समदन्ति गृध्राः ।। ६-११-१६ ।।
अन्येऽनु ये त्वेह नृशंसमज्ञा ये ह्‍युद्यतास्त्राः प्रहरन्ति मह्यम् । तैर्भूतनाथान्सगणान्निशातत्रिशूलनिर्भिन्नगलैर्यजामि ।। ६-११-१७ ।।

तं त्वामस्पृष्टवह्निमदग्धदेहं समदन्ति । वर्तमानसामीप्ये वर्तमानवन्निर्देशः ।। १६ ।। अन्येऽपि ये अज्ञा इह त्वा त्वां नृशंसमनु मह्यमुद्यतास्त्राः सन्तो यदि प्रहरन्ति तैर्भूतनाथान्भैरवादीन्यक्ष्यामि । कथंभूतैः । निशातं तीक्ष्णीकृतं यन्मम त्रिशूलं तेन निर्भिन्नो गलो येषां तैः ।। १७ ।।

Gita Press translation – When your body has been torn asunder by my trident, vultures will feast (before long) on you – forsaken as you are by shame, grace, compassion and glory and fit to be censured (even) by Rākṣasas (who devour human beings) because of your sinful deeds – since you will get no fire (to burn you) (16). Nay, I shall indeed propitiate the god Bhairava and others (the leaders of ghosts) with their retinue through (the blood of) those other foolish gods who, following (the lead of) your cruel self, have raised their missiles to strike me on this field of battle and whose neck will be (presently) pierced through with my sharpened trident (17).

(1) उद्यतमस्त्रं येन स: = उद्यतास्त्र: (देव:) – He (the god) by whom a missile has been raised.

(2) उद्यत सुँ + अस्त्र सुँ । By 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and ending in the nominative case may optionally compound to yield a बहुव्रीहि: compound provided the terms are employed to denote the sense of another पदम् (which is not part of the compound.)

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘उद्यत सुँ’ as well as ‘अस्त्र सुँ’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे (which prescribes the compounding) the term अनेकम् ends in the nominative case. And hence 2-2-30 cannot help us in deciding which term to place in the prior position in the compound.
Since ‘उद्यत’ ends in the affix ‘क्त’ (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-102 निष्ठा) it should be placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-36 निष्ठा – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound a term which ends in a निष्ठा affix (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-102 निष्ठा) takes the prior position.
But the term ‘उद्यत’ which ends in a निष्ठा affix should be placed in the latter position in the compound because it follows the term ‘अस्त्र’ which denotes a weapon, as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-37 वाहिताग्न्यादिषु in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) प्रहरणार्थेभ्य: परे निष्ठासप्तम्यौ – In बहुव्रीहि: compounds a term which ends in a निष्ठा affix (prescribed by the सूत्रम् 3-2-102 निष्ठा) or a seventh case affix takes the latter position when it follows a term which denotes a weapon.
Then how do we justify the compound ‘उद्यतास्त्र’ wherein the term ‘उद्यत’ which ends in a निष्ठा affix has actually taken the prior position in the बहुव्रीहि: compound in spite of the above वार्तिकम्? One way is to consider this compound to be part of the आहिताग्न्यादि-गण: (ref. 2-2-37 वाहिताग्न्यादिषु।)
Note: The आहिताग्न्यादि-गण: is a आकृति-गण: – which is a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operations. Hence when we see an accepted usage – such as ‘उद्यतास्त्र’ – in which a term which should have been placed in the prior position is actually found to be in the latter position in a बहुव्रीहि: compound we can justify the usage by considering the compound to be included in the आहिताग्न्यादि-गण:।

Note: ‘उद्यत सुँ + अस्त्र सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(6) उद्यत + अस्त्र । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(7) = उद्यतास्त्र । By 6-1-101 अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example उद्यतास्त्राः is qualifying ये (देवा:)। Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘उद्यतास्त्र’। It declines like राम-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्।

(8) उद्यतास्त्र + जस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(9) उद्यतास्त्र + अस् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending letter ‘स्’ of ‘जस्’ from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(10) उद्यतास्त्रास् । 6-1-102 प्रथमयो: पूर्वसवर्ण: – When a अक् letter is followed by a vowel (अच्) of the first (nominative) or second (accusative) case then for the two of them (अक् + अच्) there is a single substitute which is the elongated form of the first member (the अक् letter.)

(11) उद्यतास्त्राः । रुँत्व-विसर्गौ by 8-2-66 ससजुषो रुः and 8-3-15 खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः


1. Where has the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-37 वाहिताग्न्यादिषु in the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी) प्रहरणार्थेभ्य: परे निष्ठासप्तम्यौ (referred to in step 3) been used in the last five verses of Chapter One of the गीता?

2. What is the विग्रह: of the compound निशातत्रिशूलनिर्भिन्नगलै: (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘निशातत्रिशूलनिर्भिन्नगल’, पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

3. Which सूत्रम् justifies the formation of the compound अज्ञा: (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अज्ञ’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) used in the verses?

4. In which two words in the verses has the affix अण् been used?

5. Which type of compound is भैरवादीन् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘भैरवादि’, पुंलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) used in the commentary?
i. कर्मधारय:
ii. षष्ठी-तत्पुरुष:
iii. बहुव्रीहि:
iv. अव्ययीभाव:

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Many demons with raised weapons attacked the army of the monkeys.” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘those (demons) with raised weapons’ = ‘those (demons) by whom weapons have been raised’ = उद्यतान्यायुधानि यैस्ते (रक्षसा:)। Use the verbal root √क्रम् (क्रमुँ पादविक्षेपे १. ५४५) preceded by the उपसर्ग: ‘आङ्’ (‘आ’) for ‘to attack.’

Easy questions:

1. In which words in the verses does the सूत्रम् 3-3-131 वर्तमानसामीप्ये वर्तमानवद्वा find application?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘क्’ in the form यक्ष्यामि used in the commentary?

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