Home » 2015 » November » 05

Daily Archives: November 5, 2015

अग्रजन्मा mNs

Today we will look at the form अग्रजन्मा mNs from रघुवंशम् 5.26.

तथेति तस्यावितथं प्रतीतः प्रत्यग्रहीत्संगरमग्रजन्मा ।
गामात्तसारां रघुरप्यवेक्ष्य निष्क्रष्टुमर्थं चकमे कुबेरात् ॥ 5-26॥

अग्रजन्मा ब्राह्मणः प्रतीतः प्रीतः सन् तस्य रघोः अवितथम् अमोघं संगरं प्रतिज्ञाम् । ‘अथ प्रतिज्ञाजिसंविदापत्सु संगरः’ इत्यमरः । ‘तां गिरम्’ इति केचित्पठन्ति । तथेति प्रत्यग्रहीत्रघुः अपि गां भूमिम् आत्तसारां गृहीतधनां अवेक्ष्य कुबेरात् अर्थं निष्क्रष्टुम् आहर्तुं चकमे इयेष ।।

Translation – With the words ‘Be it so’ the Brāhmaṇa, being delighted, accepted his unfailing promise. Raghu, on his part, seeing that the earth was drained of all its wealth, wished to wrench (thought of procuring by force) money from Kubera (26).

(1) अग्रे जन्म यस्य स: = अग्रजन्मा – He (Brāhmaṇa) who is born first.

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) अग्र ङि + जन्मन् सुँ । The पदम् ‘अग्र ङि’ which ends in the seventh case is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ – In a बहुव्रीहि: compound the पदम् which ends in a seventh case affix or is an adjective takes the prior position.
But which सूत्रम् justifies the formation of a बहुव्रीहि: compound using a पदम् ending in a seventh case affix? We cannot use 2-2-24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे because that सूत्रम् only prescribes compounding of terms (having the designation पदम् and) ending in the nominative case. Hence अत एव ज्ञापकाद्व्यधिकरणपदो बहुव्रीहिः – The सूत्रम् 2-2-35 itself serves as an indication (ज्ञापकम्) that a बहुव्रीहिः compound may be formed using terms that do not have समानाधिकरणम् (same locus) and hence do not all end in the nominative case. Otherwise – if व्यधिकरणपदो बहुव्रीहिः were not allowed – there would be no point in mentioning ‘सप्तमी’ in the सूत्रम् 2-2-35 सप्तमीविशेषणे बहुव्रीहौ।
Note: ‘अग्र ङि + जन्मन् सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(3) अग्रजन्मन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

The gender of a बहुव्रीहि: compound matches that of which it qualifies. In the present example ब्राह्मण: is being qualified. Hence we assign the masculine gender to the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अग्रजन्मन्’। It declines like आत्मन्-शब्द:।

The विवक्षा is प्रथमा-एकवचनम्।

(4) अग्रजन्मन् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: As per 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य, the affix ‘सुँ ‘ has the designation सर्वनामस्थानम् here. This allows 6-4-8 to apply in the next step.

(5) अग्रजन्मान् + सुँ । By 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ, the penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् (base) ending in the letter ‘न्’ gets elongated if it is followed by a non-vocative affix having the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्।

(6) अग्रजन्मान् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(7) अग्रजन्मान् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात्‌ सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल्। Now ‘अग्रजन्मान्’ gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(8) अग्रजन्मा । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य, the ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम् ।


1. Which other compound (besides अग्रजन्मा) used in the verses is a बहुव्रीहि: compound?

2. Can you spot a व्यधिकरणपदो बहुव्रीहिः compound in verse 26-31 of Chapter Nine of the गीता?

3. In which word in the verses has the particle नञ् been used?

4. What is an alternate form for निष्क्रष्टुम्?

5. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a fifth case affix in the form कुबेरात् used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“All of Kubera’s wealth has been obtained only by the grace of Lord Śiva (the God who has the moon on his forehead.)” Construct a बहुव्रीहि: compound for ‘He (the God) who has the moon on his forehead’ = भाले चन्द्रो यस्य स: (देव:)। Use the masculine प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनुग्रह’ for ‘grace.’

Easy questions:

1. Can you spot the augment ईट् in the verses?

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-78 अभ्यासस्यासवर्णे been used in the commentary?

Recent Posts

November 2015