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वैदेह्या fIs

Today we will look at the form वैदेह्या fIs from रघुवंशम् verse 12-20.

रामोऽपि सह वैदेह्या वने वन्येन वर्तयन् ।
चचार सानुजः शान्तो वृद्धेक्ष्वाकुव्रतं युवा ॥ 12-20 ॥

टीका
सानुजः शान्तः रामोऽपि वैदेह्या सह वने वन्येन वनभवेन कन्दमूलादिना वर्तयन् वृत्तिं कुर्वञ्जीवन् वृद्धेक्ष्वाकूणां व्रतं वनवासात्मकं [वृद्धेक्ष्वाकुव्रतं ] युवा यौवनस्थ एव चचार ।।

Translation – Rāma, too with Sītā, sustaining there in the forest on forest-food, took up with his younger brother, with a mind becalmed even while in youth, the vows that bind the Ikṣvākus in their old age (20).

The above verse has been discussed in detail in the Thursday class on September 8, 2011 –  Video

वैदेह्या is तृतीया-एकवचनम् of the स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘वैदेही’।

(1) वैदेही + टा । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। As per 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) co-occurring with सह or a synonym of सह, provided the प्रातिपदिकम् does not denote the primary (agent.)

See question 2.

(2) वैदेही + आ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(3) वैदेह्या । By 6-1-77 इको यणचि

Questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने been used for the first time in the गीता?

2. In the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी the वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने reads सहार्थेन युक्ते अप्रधाने तृतीया स्‍यात् । Commenting on the word सहार्थेन used in the वृत्ति: the तत्त्वबोधिनी commentary says – ‘सहेनाप्रधाने’ इत्येव वाच्ये युक्तग्रहणादर्थग्रहणमित्याह– सहार्थेनेति। सहार्थकशब्देन सह–साकं–सार्धमित्यादिनेत्यर्थः। Please explain.

3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the दीर्घादेश: (elongation) in the form शान्त:?

4. Can you spot the affix ‘क’ in the commentary?

5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनुज’ (used as part of the compound सानुज: in the verses)?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Śrī Kṛṣṇa went to Mathurā with Balarāma.”

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् is applied to perform the following operation (in the commentary) – कुर्वन् + जीवन् = कुर्वञ्जीवन्?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Where has the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने been used for the first time in the गीता?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने has been used for the first time in the गीता in the form कैः (सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘किम्’, पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-बहुवचनम्) in the following verse –
    यावदेतान्निरीक्षेऽहं योद्धुकामानवस्थितान्‌ |
    कैर्मया सह योद्धव्यमस्मिन्‌ रणसमुद्यमे || 1-22||

    2. In the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी the वृत्ति: of the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने reads सहार्थेन युक्ते अप्रधाने तृतीया स्‍यात् । Commenting on the word सहार्थेन used in the वृत्ति: the तत्त्वबोधिनी commentary says – ‘सहेनाप्रधाने’ इत्येव वाच्ये युक्तग्रहणादर्थग्रहणमित्याह– सहार्थेनेति। सहार्थकशब्देन सह–साकं–सार्धमित्यादिनेत्यर्थः। Please explain.
    Answer: If पाणिनि: did not want to include the synonyms of सह he could have composed a more compact सूत्रम् as सहेनाप्रधाने। The fact that he has included युक्ते in the सूत्रम् 2-3-19 सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने tells us that it applies not only when सह itself is used but also when a synonym of सह is used. The synonyms of सह are साकम्, सार्धम् etc.

    3. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the दीर्घादेश: (elongation) in the form शान्त:?
    Answer: : The सूत्रम् 6-4-15 अनुनासिकस्य क्विझलोः क्ङिति prescribes the दीर्घादेश: (elongation) in the form शान्तः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘शान्त’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) – derived from the verbal root √शम् (शमुँ उपशमे ४. ९८).

    The ending letter ‘उ’ of ‘शमुँ’ is a इत् by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत् and takes elision by 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Hence ‘शमुँ’ is a उदित्।

    शम् + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा। Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्तरि (to denote the agent) here as per 3-4-72 गत्यर्थाकर्मकश्लिषशीङ्स्थासवसजनरुहजीर्यतिभ्यश्च – When following one of the verbal roots listed below, the affix “क्त” may be used in the active voice (कर्तरि) as well as in the passive voice (भावकर्मणो:) –
    (i) any verbal root used in the sense of motion (गत्यर्थ:)
    (ii) any verbal root used intransitively (अकर्मक:)
    (iii) the verbal roots √श्लिष् (श्लिषँ आलिङ्गने ४. ८३), √शी (शीङ् स्वप्ने २. २६), √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७), √आस् (आसँ उपवेशने २. ११), √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०), √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४), √रुह् (रुहँ बीजजन्मनि प्रादुर्भावे च १. ९९५) and √जॄ (जॄष् वयोहानौ ४. २५)।
    Note: The verbal roots listed in (iii) are intransitive. But when used with a उपसर्ग: they may become transitive. In that case they would not be covered by (ii). This is the reason for listing them separately in (iii).
    = शम् + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। The affix ‘त’ is prevented from taking the augment ‘इट्’ (which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः) by 7-2-15 यस्य विभाषा – If a verbal root optionally allows an augment इट् in some case, then following that verbal root a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) is prohibited from taking the augment इट्। Note: 7-2-15 is applicable here because as per 7-2-56 उदितो वा – When following a verbal root which is उदित् (has the letter ‘उ’ as a इत्), the affix ‘क्त्वा’ optionally takes the augment इट्।
    = शाम् + त । By 6-4-15 अनुनासिकस्य क्विझलोः क्ङिति – The penultimate vowel of a अङ्गम् which ends in a nasal consonant is elongated when followed by either i) the affix ‘क्वि’ or ii) an affix which begins with a झल् letter and is either कित् or ङित् – has a the letter ‘क्’ or the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत्।
    = शां + त । By 8-3-23 मोऽनुस्वारः।
    = शान्त । By 8-4-58 अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः।

    ‘शान्त’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    4. Can you spot the affix ‘क’ in the commentary?
    Answer: The affix ‘क’ occurs in the form यौवनस्थः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘यौवनस्थ’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)।

    यौवने तिष्ठतीति यौवनस्थः।
    The derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘यौवनस्थ’ is similar to the derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘गजस्थ’ as shown in the following post – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/10/12/गजस्थस्य-mgs/

    5. Which कृत् affix is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनुज’ (used as part of the compound सानुज: in the verses)?
    Answer: The कृत् affix ‘ड’ is used to form the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनुज’।

    अनुजातः = अनुजः।

    अनु + जन् + ड । By 3-2-101 अन्येष्वपि दृश्यते – Even when in composition with a पदम् which is other than the ones mentioned in the preceding rules (from 3-2-97 to 3-2-100), the verbal root √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४) may be seen taking the affix ‘ड’ provided the verbal root is used to denote an action in the past tense.
    = अनु + जन् + अ । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-7 चुटू and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = अनु + ज् + अ । By 6-4-143 टेः। Note: The अङ्गम् does not have the भ-सञ्ज्ञा here. But still टि-लोप: is done because otherwise no purpose would be served by having the letter ‘ड्’ as a इत् in ‘ड’। डित्वसामर्थ्यादभस्यापि टेर्लोपः।
    = अनु + ज ।

    Now we form a compound between ‘अनु’ (which is the उपपदम्) and ‘ज’ by using the सूत्रम् 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्।

    In the compound, ‘अनु’ is placed in the prior position as per 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌। Note: In the सूत्रम् 3-2-101, the term अन्येषु ends in the seventh (locative) case. Hence ‘अनु’ gets the उपपद-सञ्ज्ञा here by 3-1-92 तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्‌। Note: Here ‘अनु’ is the उपपदम् and hence it gets the उपसर्जन-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – A term denoted by a word (in this case ‘उपपदम्’) ending in a nominative case in a सूत्रम् (in this case 2-2-19 उपपदमतिङ्) which prescribes a compound gets the designation ‘उपसर्जन’।

    अनु + ज = अनुज। ‘अनुज’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Śrī Kṛṣṇa went to Mathurā with Balarāma.”
    Answer: श्रीकृष्णः बलरामेण सह मथुराम् ययौ = श्रीकृष्णो बलरामेण सह मथुरां ययौ।

    Easy questions:

    1. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ is used in the form युवा (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘युवन्’, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)।

    युवन् + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छस्टा…। The affix ‘सुँ’ gets the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here by 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows the सूत्रम् 6-4-8 to apply below.
    युवन् + स् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = युवान् + स् । By 6-4-8 सर्वनामस्थाने चासम्बुद्धौ – The penultimate letter of the अङ्गम् (base) ending in the letter ‘न्’ gets elongated if it is followed by a non-vocative affix having the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्।
    = युवान् । By 6-1-68 हल्ङ्याब्भ्यो दीर्घात् सुतिस्यपृक्तं हल्। Now ‘युवान्’ gets पद-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.
    = युवा । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य।

    2. Which सूत्रम् is applied to perform the following operation (in the commentary) – कुर्वन् + जीवन् = कुर्वञ्जीवन्?
    Answer: This सन्धिः operation (replacing the letter ‘न्’ by the letter ‘ञ्’) is performed by the सूत्रम् 8-4-40 स्तोः श्चुना श्चु: – When the letter ‘स्’ or a letter of the त-वर्ग: (‘त्’, ‘थ्’, ‘द्’, ‘ध्’, ‘न्’) comes in contact with either the letter ‘श्’ or a letter of the च-वर्ग: (‘च्’, ‘छ्’, ‘ज्’, ‘झ्’, ‘ञ्’), then it is replaced respectively by ‘श्’, च-वर्ग: (‘च्’, ‘छ्’, ‘ज्’, ‘झ्’, ‘ञ्’)।

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