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पक्वानाम् nGp

Today we will look at the form पक्वानाम् nGp from श्रीमद्-वाल्मीकि-रामायणम् 2.105.17.

यथा फलानां पक्वानां नान्यत्र पतनाद्भयम् । एवं नरस्य जातस्य नान्यत्र मरणाद्भयम् ।। २-१०५-१७ ।।
यथाऽऽगारं दृढस्थूणं जीर्णं भूत्वावसीदति । तथावसीदन्ति नरा जरामृत्युवशंगताः ।। २-१०५-१८ ।।

Gita Press translation – As no fear from any quarter other than a fall awaits ripe fruits, so no fear from any quarter other than death awaits a man come into the world (17). (Even) as a house (though) supported by stout pillars collapses on getting old, so men fallen into the clutches of old age and death breathe their last (18).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “पक्व” is derived from the verbal root √पच् (डुपचँष् पाके १. ११५१).

(1) पच् + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: ‘पक्व’ has been used in this verse in a special type of usage called a कर्मकर्तरि प्रयोग: where the object (in this case फलानि) is turned into a subject and the verb (in this case √पच्) which is transitive is turned in to intransitive as a result.

(2) पच् + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः। See question 2.

(3) पक् + त । By 8-2-30 चोः कुः – The consonants of the च-वर्ग: (“च्”, “छ्”, “ज्”, “झ्”, “ञ्”) get the consonants of the क-वर्ग: (“क्”, “ख्”, “ग्”, “घ्”, “ङ्”) as a replacement when they occur at the end of a पदम् or when they are followed by a झल् letter.

(4) पक् + व । By 8-2-52 पचो वः – A वकार: is the replacement in place of a तकार: of a निष्ठा affix (ref. 1-1-26) which immediately follows the verbal root √पच् (डुपचँष् पाके १. ११५१).

“पक्व” gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds gets the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

The विवक्षा is नपुंसकलिङ्गे षष्ठी-बहुवचनम्।

(5) पक्व + आम् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकारः of “आम्” from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा।

(6) पक्व + नुँट् आम् । By 7-1-54 ह्रस्वनद्यापो नुट्, the affix “आम्” takes the augment नुँट् when it follows a प्रातिपदिकम् which either ends in a short vowel or has the नदी-संज्ञा or ends in the feminine affix “आप्”। By the परिभाषा-सूत्रम् 1-1-46 आद्यन्तौ टकितौ, the ‘नुँट्’-आगम: joins at the beginning of “आम्”।

(7) पक्व + नाम् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(8) पक्वानाम् । By 6-4-3 नामि – The ending vowel of an अङ्गम् gets elongated if followed by the term “नाम्”।


1. Where has the verbal root √पच् (डुपचँष् पाके १. ११५१) been used in Chapter Fifteen of the गीता?

2. Among the monosyllabic verbal roots which end in a चकार:, which others (besides √पच्) are अनुदात्तोपदेशा: in the धातुपाठ:?

3. Where has the सूत्रम् 8-2-42 रदाभ्यां निष्ठातो नः पूर्वस्य च दः been used in the verses?

4. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the substitution ‘सीद’ in the forms अवसीदति and अवसीदन्ति?

5. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Even though I’m not old my hair is grey (cooked.)”

Advanced question:

1. The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘जात’ is derived from the verbal root √जन् (जनीँ प्रादुर्भावे ४. ४४). In the ‘अङ्गस्य’ अधिकार:, can you find a सूत्रम् which prescribes the आकारादेश: in ‘जात’? Hint: पाणिनि: specifically mentions the verbal root √जन् in the सूत्रम्।

Easy questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् is used for the substitute ‘स्य’ in the form नरस्य and जातस्य?

2. From which सूत्रम् does the अनुवृत्ति: of ‘दीर्घ:’ come in to the सूत्रम् 6-4-3 नामि (used in step 8)?

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