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अभिहितम् nNs

Today we will look at the form अभिहितम् nNs from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 11.18.48.

वर्णाश्रमवतां धर्म एष आचारलक्षणः । स एव मद्भक्तियुतो निःश्रेयसकरः परः ।। ११-१८-४७ ।।
एतत्तेऽभिहितं साधो भवान्पृच्छति यच्च माम् । यथा स्वधर्मसंयुक्तो भक्तो मां समियात्परम् ।। ११-१८-४८ ।।

उक्तमर्थं संक्षिप्याह – य एव आचारलक्षणः पितृलोकप्राप्तिफलः स एव मद्भक्तियुतो मदर्पणेन कृतः ।। ४७ ।। प्रकरणार्थमुपसंहरति – एतच्च तेऽभिहितम्यथा भक्तो भूत्वा मां परं संप्राप्नुयादिति ।। ४८ ।।

Translation – This is the righteous course of those affiliated to a particular Varṇa (class of men) and Āśrama (stage in life), consisting of certain (definite) rules of conduct. The same Dharma, when characterized by devotion to Me (i.e., pursued as an offering to Me) proves to be of supreme value as a means to final beatitude (47). (Thus) I have told you, O good one, how a man wedded to his righteous course turns out to be a devotee and duly attains to Me, the Supreme. And this is what you asked Me (in particular) (48).

The प्रातिपदिकम् “हित” is derived from the verbal root √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११).

(1) धा + क्त । By 3-2-102 निष्ठा – The affix “निष्ठा” (ref.1-1-26 क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा) may be used following a verbal root when denoting an action in the past tense. Note: The affix ‘क्त’ has been used कर्मणि (to denote the object) here as per 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः – The affixes having the designation “कृत्य”, the affix “क्त” and the affixes that have the sense of “खल्” (ref: 3-3-126) are only used to denote the action (भावः) or the object (कर्म)।

(2) धा + त । अनुबन्ध-लोप: by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः। Note: 7-2-10 एकाच उपदेशेऽनुदात्तात्‌ prevents the affix ‘त’ from taking the augment ‘इट्’ which would have been done by 7-2-35 आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः

(3) हि + त । By 7-4-42 दधातेर्हिः – The term ‘हि’ is substituted in place of the (entire) verbal root √धा (डुधाञ् धारणपोषणयोः | दान इत्यप्येके ३. ११) when followed by an affix which is कित् (has ककार: as a इत्) and begins with a तकार:। As per 1-1-55 अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य the entire term “धा” is replaced by “हि”।

‘हित’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च – A word form that ends in a कृत्-प्रत्ययः or a तद्धित-प्रत्ययः and so also compounds get the name प्रातिपदिकम्।

‘हित’ has been compounded with the उपसर्ग: ‘अभि’ to give the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अभिहित’। Note: The compounding is authorized by the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः which we have not studied yet.

The विवक्षा is नपुंसकलिङ्गे, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्

(4) अभिहित + सुँ । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिँभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्

(5) अभिहित + अम् । By 7-1-24 अतोऽम् – The affixes “सुँ” and “अम्” that follow a neuter अङ्गम् ending in the short vowel “अ” take “अम्” as their replacement. 1-3-4 न विभक्तौ तुस्माः prevents the ending मकारः of “अम्” from getting इत्-सञ्ज्ञा ।

(6) अभिहितम् । By 6-1-107 अमि पूर्वः – In place of a preceding अक् letter and the following vowel (अच्) belonging to the affix “अम्” there is a single substitute of that preceding अक् letter.


1. Where has ‘हित’ been used with the उपसर्ग: ‘अभि’ in Chapter Two of the गीता?

2. From which other verbal root may the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘हित’ be derived?

3. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 7-4-42 दधातेर्हिः (used in step 3), the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – श्तिपा निर्देशो धेटो निवृत्त्यर्थः। Please explain.

4. Can you spot the affix ‘ट’ in the verses?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-1-16 ग्रहिज्यावयिव्यधिवष्टिविचतिवृश्चतिपृच्छतिभृज्जतीनां ङिति च been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Sañjaya heard the Gītā narrated by Śrī Kṛṣṇa to Arjuna.” Use चतुर्थी विभक्ति: with ‘Arjuna.’

Easy questions:

1. In which अधिकार: does the सूत्रम् 7-4-42 दधातेर्हिः (used in step 3) occur?
(i) धातो: (ii) अङ्गस्य (iii) भस्य (iv) प्रत्यय:, परश्च।

2. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-106 तदोः सः सावनन्त्ययोः been used in the verses?

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