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मातापितरौ mAd

Today we will look at the form मातापितरौ  mAd from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 5.8.9.

अहो बतायं हरिणकुणकः कृपण ईश्वररथचरणपरिभ्रमणरयेण स्वगणसुहृद्बन्धुभ्यः परिवर्जितः शरणं च मोपसादितो मामेव मातापितरौ भ्रातृज्ञातीन्यौथिकांश्चैवोपेयाय नान्यं कञ्चन वेद मय्यतिविस्रब्धश्चात एव मया मत्परायणस्य पोषणपालनप्रीणनलालनमनसूयुनानुष्ठेयं शरण्योपेक्षादोषविदुषा ।। ५-८-९ ।।
नूनं ह्यार्याः साधव उपशमशीलाः कृपणसुहृद एवंविधार्थे स्वार्थानपि गुरुतरानुपेक्षन्ते ।। ५-८-१० ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
आसक्तिं प्रपञ्चयति – अहो इत्यादिना इति कृपानुषङ्ग इत्येतत्पर्यन्तेन । ईश्वररथचरणः कालचक्रं तस्य परिभ्रमणवेगेन स्वगणादिभ्यो विभ्रंशितः मा इति मां च शरणं प्रापितः मामेव मातापित्रादिबुद्ध्योपेयाय प्राप्तः । यौथिकान्यूथसंघातिनः । अनसूयुना एतन्निमित्तं मम स्वार्थो भ्रश्यतीति दोषदृष्टिमकुर्वता ।। ९ ।। तदेवाह – नूनं हीति ।। १० ।।

Gita Press translation – “Oh, torn from its class as well as from its near and dear ones and alas! brought under my protection by the fast rotating wheel of Time, this helpless young deer has accepted me alone for its parents, kith and kin and mates, knowing no one else, and has great confidence in me. Hence it behooves me (too) to nourish, protect (from enemies), gratify and fondle in an unavailing spirit this fawn exclusively depending on me, knowing as I do that it is sinful to forsake him who seeks my protection (9). Surely worthy and pious souls who are given to self-control and are friends of the poor ignore their own big interests for the sake of such (wretched) creatures (10).”

(1) माता च पिता च = मातापितरौ – parents (mother and father).

(2) मातृ सुँ + पितृ सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।

(3) मातृ सुँ + पितृ सुँ । As per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌) अभ्यर्हितं च, we place ‘मातृ सुँ’ in the prior position in the compound because the mother commands greater respect than the father. Otherwise, as per the वार्तिकम् (under 2-2-33 अजाद्यदन्तम्‌) लघ्वक्षरं पूर्वम्‌ the term ‘पितृ सुँ’ would have been placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘मातृ सुँ + पितृ सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) मातृ + पितृ । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) मात् आनँङ् + पितृ । By 6-3-25 आनङ् ऋतो द्वन्द्वे – When the final term of the compound follows, there is a substitution of ‘आनँङ्’ (in place of the penultimate term) in a द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms – i) all end in the letter ‘ऋ’ and ii) denote a relationship either via knowledge/study or birth. (Since the parents are jointly involved in the birth of their offspring, they do have a relationship via birth.)
As per 1-1-53 ङिच्च, only the ending letter ‘ऋ’ of ‘मातृ’ is substituted with ‘आनँङ्’।

(6) मातान् + पितृ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः
Note: Here ‘मातान्’ has the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य to apply in the next step.

(7) मातापितृ । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘मातापितृ’ is masculine since the final member ‘पितृ’ of the compound is masculine. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses इतरेतरयोगः) is dual in number because it has two members.

The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-द्विवचनम्।

(8) मातापितृ + औट् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्। Note: The affix ‘औट्’ has the सर्वनामस्थान-सञ्ज्ञा here as per 1-1-43 सुडनपुंसकस्य। This allows 7-3-110 to apply below.

(9) मातापितृ + औ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः

(10) मातापितर् + औ । By 7-3-110 ऋतो ङिसर्वनामस्थानयोः – The ending letter ‘ऋ’ of a अङ्गम् gets a गुणः replacement, when followed by the affix ‘ङि’ (सप्तमी-एकवचनम्) or an affix with the designation सर्वनामस्थानम्। By 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः, in the place of ऋवर्ण: if an अण् letter (‘अ’, ‘इ’, ‘उ’) comes as a substitute, it is always followed by a ‘रँ’ (‘र्’, ‘ल्’) letter.

= मातापितरौ ।

Questions:

1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-25 आनङ् ऋतो द्वन्द्वे (used in step 5) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – न चाकारमात्रमेव विधीयतामिति वाच्यम्। ‘उरण् रपरः’ इति रपरप्रसङ्गात्। Please explain.

2. Which compound in the verses is a द्वन्द्व: compound constructed समाहारे?

3. Can you spot the affix यत् in the verses?

4. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आर्य’ (used in the form आर्या: (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) in the verses) derived?

5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-3-74 तस्मान्नुडचि been used in the verses?

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“My parents have passed away.” Paraphrase to “My parents have gone to heaven.” Use the अव्ययम् ‘स्वर्’ for ‘heaven.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) been used in the verses?

2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘न्’ in the form भ्रश्यति used in the commentary?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Commenting on the सूत्रम् 6-3-25 आनङ् ऋतो द्वन्द्वे (used in step 5) the तत्त्वबोधिनी says – न चाकारमात्रमेव विधीयतामिति वाच्यम्। ‘उरण् रपरः’ इति रपरप्रसङ्गात्। Please explain.
    Answer: Since the letter ‘न्’ of the substitution ‘आनँङ्’ prescribed by the सूत्रम् 6-3-25 आनङ् ऋतो द्वन्द्वे always gets elided (as shown in step 7 in the post) by the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य, one may wonder ‘why not simply prescribe the substitution as only ‘आ’ (instead of ‘आनँङ्’)?’ The तत्त्वबोधिनी says – No, because if the substitution were to be only ‘आ’ it would trigger the undesired addition of the letter ‘र्’ by the सूत्रम् 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः।

    2. Which compound in the verses is a द्वन्द्व: compound constructed समाहारे?
    Answer: The compound पोषणपालनप्रीणनलालनम् (नपुंसकलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ’पोषणपालनप्रीणनलालन’, प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) is a द्वन्द्व: compound constructed समाहारे।

    The लौकिक-विग्रहः is –
    पोषणं च पालनं च प्रीणनं च लालनं च = पोषणपालनप्रीणनलालनम्/पोषणपालनप्रीणनलालनानि – nourishing, protecting, gratifying and fondling

    The अलौकिक-विग्रहः is –
    पोषण सुँ + पालन सुँ + प्रीणन सुँ + लालन सुँ । By 2-2-29 चार्थे द्वन्द्वः – Two or more terms having the designation पदम् and standing in a relation expressible by ‘च’ (‘and’) may optionally compound to yield a compound called द्वन्द्वः।
    Note: All the members of the compound have three syllables and also have a vowel that has the गुरु-सञ्ज्ञा। There is no rule here that can dictate which member should be placed in the prior position. Any order is allowed.
    Note: ‘पोषण सुँ + पालन सुँ + प्रीणन सुँ + लालन सुँ’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.
    = पोषण + पालन + प्रीणन + लालन । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः।
    = पोषणपालनप्रीणनलालन ।

    As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पोषणपालनप्रीणनलालन’ is neuter since the final member ‘लालन’ of the compound is neuter. This द्वन्द्वः compound (which expresses समाहारः) is singular in number. It can also express इतरेतरयोग: in which case it will be plural in number.

    Note: As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-6 जातिरप्राणिनाम्‌ – A द्वन्द्व: compound whose terms denote classes (generic names) of things which are not living beings is always singular in number and hence always expresses a समाहार: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is subservient to the group) and not इतरेतरयोग: (a group in which the individuality of the terms is evident.)
    But द्रव्यजातीनामेवायमेकवद्भाव: – The सूत्रम् 2-4-6 applies only when the terms of a द्वन्द्व: compound denote classes (generic names) of things (physical objects – not qualities or actions.) Hence it does not apply in the above example where the members of the द्वन्द्व: compound are denoting actions. Therefore, the compound ‘पोषणपालनप्रीणनलालन’ may express either a समाहार: or इतरेतरयोग:।

    3. Can you spot the affix यत् in the verses?
    Answer: The affix यत् occurs in the form अनुष्ठेयम् (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनुष्ठेय’, नपुंसकलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्) – derived from the verbal root √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७) preceded by the उपसर्गः ’अनु’।

    Please see the answer to question 2 in the following comment for the derivation of the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘स्थेय’- https://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/09/06/स्थाप्यः-mns/#comment-4423
    अनु + स्थेय । ‘स्थेय’ is compounded with the उपसर्गः ‘अनु’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    = अनु + ष् थेय। By 8-3-65 उपसर्गात्‌ सुनोतिसुवतिस्यतिस्तौतिस्तोभतिस्थासेनयसेधसिचसञ्जस्वञ्जाम् – The letter ‘स्’ of the verbal roots √स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ १. १०७७) etc listed in the सूत्रम् 8-3-65 is replaced by the letter ‘ष्’ when it follows a उपसर्गः which ends in a इण् letter, even if the augment ‘अट्’ intervenes (between the इण् letter which is the cause for the substitution and the letter ‘स्’ which is substituted.) Note: We have not studied this सूत्रम् before.
    = अनुष्ठेय। By 8-4-41 ष्टुना ष्टुः।
    ‘अनुष्ठेय’ gets the प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। It is an adjective which declines like वन-शब्द: in the neuter gender. प्रथमा-एकवचनम् is अनुष्ठेयम्।

    4. From which verbal root is the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आर्य’ (used in the form आर्या: (पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-बहुवचनम्) in the verses) derived?
    Answer: The प्रातिपदिकम् ‘आर्य’ is derived from the verbal root √ऋ (ऋ गतिप्रापणयोः १. १०८६, ऋ गतौ ३. १७) as follows –

    ऋ + ण्यत् । By 3-1-124 ऋहलोर्ण्यत्‌ – The affix ण्यत् may be used following any verbal root which either ends in a ऋ-वर्णः (letter ‘ऋ’ or ‘ॠ’) or in a consonant.
    Note: The affix ‘ण्यत्’ has the designation ‘कृत्य’ since the सूत्रम् 3-1-124 ऋहलोर्ण्यत्‌ occurs in the अधिकारः of 3-1-95 कृत्याः प्राङ् ण्वुलः। Hence as per 3-4-70 तयोरेव कृत्यक्तखलर्थाः, it is used only to denote the action (भावः) or the object (कर्म)
    ‘आर्य’ means ‘one who is fit to be approached’ – hence it refers to a noble/worthy person.
    = ऋ + य । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = अर् + य । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः, 1-1-51 उरण् रपरः।
    = आर्य । By 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः।
    ‘आर्य’ gets प्रातिपदिक-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। It is an adjective which declines like राम-शब्द: in the masculine gender. प्रथमा-बहुवचनम् is आर्या:।

    5. Where has the सूत्रम् 6-3-74 तस्मान्नुडचि been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-3-74 तस्मान्नुडचि has been used in the compound form अनसूयुना (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनसूयु’, पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-एकवचनम्)।

    The लौकिक-विग्रहः is –
    न असूयुः = अनसूयुः – not intolerant/faultfinding
    The derivation of the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘अनसूयु’ is similar to the derivation of the compound ‘अनृत’ as shown in the following post – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2015/08/20/अनृतम्-nas

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “My parents have passed away.” Paraphrase to “My parents have gone to heaven.” Use the अव्ययम् ‘स्वर्’ for ‘heaven.’
    Answer: मम मातापितरौ स्वर्गतौ।

    Easy questions:
    1. Where has the verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) been used in the verses?
    Answer: The verbal root √इ (इण् गतौ २. ४०) has been used in the form उपेयाय

    Please see the answer to question 2 in the following comment for the derivation of the form उपेयाय – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/02/05/प्रेषयामास-3as-लिँट्/#comment-3232

    2. Which सूत्रम् prescribes the elision of the letter ‘न्’ in the form भ्रश्यति used in the commentary?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 6-4-24 अनिदितां हल उपधायाः क्ङिति prescribes the elision of the letter ‘न्’ in the form भ्रश्यति – derived from the verbal root √भ्रन्श् (भ्रंशुँ अधःपतने ४. १३८).

    The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।
    भ्रन्श् + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्।
    = भ्रन्श् + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = भ्रन्श् + तिप् । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्।
    = भ्रन्श् + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम् and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = भ्रन्श् + श्यन् + ति । By 3-1-69 दिवादिभ्यः श्यन्। Note: 3-1-69 is a अपवाद: (exception) to 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌।
    = भ्रन्श् + य + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    Note: Since the सार्वधातुकम् affix ‘श्यन्’ is अपित् (does not have the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्), by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित् it behaves ङिद्वत् – as if it has the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत्। This allows 6-4-24 to apply in the next step.
    = भ्रश् + य + ति । By 6-4-24 अनिदितां हल उपधायाः क्ङिति – the penultimate letter ‘न्’ of bases that end in a consonant and that do not have the letter ‘इ’ as a marker, takes लोपः (elision) when followed by an affix that has either the letter ‘क्’ or ‘ङ्’ as a marker.
    = भ्रश्यति ।

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