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एकादश fAp

Today we will look at the form एकादश  fAp from श्रीमद्भागवतम् 3.2.26.

वसुदेवस्य देवक्यां जातो भोजेन्द्रबन्धने । चिकीर्षुर्भगवानस्याः शमजेनाभियाचितः ।। ३-२-२५ ।।
ततो नन्दव्रजमितः पित्रा कंसाद्विबिभ्यता । एकादश समास्तत्र गूढार्चिः सबलोऽवसत् ।। ३-२-२६ ।।

श्रीधर-स्वामि-टीका
इदानीं तस्यान्तर्धानप्रकारं वक्तुमादित आरभ्य तच्चरितं संक्षेपतः कथयति । वसुदेवस्य भार्यायां जातः । भोजेन्द्रः कंसस्तस्य बन्धनागारे । अस्याः पृथिव्याः शं सुखं स्वयं चिकीर्षुःअजेन ब्रह्मणा च याचितः सन् ।। २५ ।। पित्रा हेतुभूतेन नन्दव्रजमितो गतः । समाः संवत्सरान् । गूढार्चिर्गुप्ततेजाः ।। २६ ।।

Gita Press translation – In order to bring relief to this earth, the Lord was born of Vasudeva and Devakī in the prison-house of Kaṁsa (the chief of the Bhojas) in response to the prayer of Brahmā (the unborn) (25). Having been removed therefrom to Nanda’s Vraja by His father (Vasudeva), who was terribly afraid of Kaṁsa, He lived there with Balarāma (His elder brother) for eleven years, concealing His glory (from the outside world) (26).

(1) एकाधिका दश = एकादश – one plus ten = eleven
Note: एकाधिकाः itself is a तृतीया-तत्पुरुष: compound explained as follows – एकेनाधिकाः = एकाधिकाः – exceeding by one. The compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘एकाधिक’ is then used in the following derivation –

अलौकिक-विग्रह: –
(2) एकाधिक जस् + दशन् जस् । By 2-1-57 विशेषणं विशेष्येण बहुलम्‌ – A सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् denoting a qualifier (adjective) variously compounds with another सुबन्तं (ending in a सुँप् affix) पदम् which denotes that which is qualified – provided both the सुबन्त-पदे refer to the same item – and the resulting compound is a तत्पुरुष:।

(3) By 1-2-43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् – the term ‘एकाधिक जस्’ gets the designation उपसर्जनम् because in the सूत्रम् 2-1-57 (which prescribes the compounding) the term विशेषणम्‌ ends in the nominative case. Hence the adjective ‘एकाधिक जस्’ is placed in the prior position in the compound as per the सूत्रम् 2-2-30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्‌ – In a compound a term which has the designation ‘उपसर्जन’ should be placed in the prior position.

Note: ‘एकाधिक जस् + दशन् जस्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च। This allows 2-4-71 to apply in the next step.

(4) एकाधिक + दशन् । By 2-4-71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः – A सुँप् affix takes a लुक् elision when it is a part of a धातुः or a प्रातिपदिकम्।

(5) एक + दशन् । By the वार्तिकम् – शाकपार्थिवादीनां सिद्धये उत्तरपदलोपस्‍योपसंख्‍यानम् – In order to explain compounds like शाकपार्थिवः, an additional provision is made to allow for the elision of the latter member of a compound (which itself is the prior member of the final compound.) In the present example, the latter member ‘अधिक’ of the compound ‘एकाधिक’ is elided in order to explain the compound ‘एकादश’।
Note: A compound composed using this वार्तिकम् is referred to as a शाकपार्थिवादिसमास: or a मध्यमपदलोपिसमास:।

(6) एकादशन् । There are two possible ways to justify the substitution ‘आ’ (in place of the ending letter ‘अ’ of ‘एक’) in this compound –
i) ‘आत्‌’ इति योगविभागात् – Split the सूत्रम् 6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः in to two parts – (a) आत्‌ and (b) महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः। The meaning of part (a) becomes – The ending letter of a पदम् is (sometimes) substituted by ‘आ’ when it is followed by a latter member (of a compound.) We can use this part (a) to justify the substitution ‘आ’ (in place of the ending letter ‘अ’ of ‘एक’) in the compound ‘एकादशन्’।
The अनुवृत्ति: of ‘आत्‌’ is taken into the part (b). Hence the meaning of part (b) is the same as the meaning of the entire सूत्रम् 6-3-46 आन्महतः समानाधिकरणजातीययोः।
ii) ‘5-3-49 प्रागेकादशभ्योऽच्छन्दसि’ इति निर्देशाद्वा – or we use the ज्ञापकम् (indication) given by the सूत्रम् 5-3-49 wherein पाणिनि: himself has used the compound ‘एकादशन्’ in the form एकादशभ्य:।

As per the सूत्रम् 2-4-26 परवल्लिङ्गं द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः, the compound प्रातिपदिकम् ‘एकादशन्’ is an adjective since the latter member ‘दशन्’ of the compound is an adjective. Here it is used in the feminine since it is an adjective to समाः। The विवक्षा is द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्।

(7) एकादशन् + शस् । By 4-1-2 स्वौजसमौट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्ङेभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ङ्योस्सुप्‌
Note: ‘एकादशन्’ gets the षट्-सञ्ज्ञा by the सूत्रम् 1-1-24 ष्णान्ता षट् – A numeral stem ending in the letter ‘ष्’ or the letter ‘न्’ gets the designation षट्। This allows the सूत्रम् 7-1-22 to apply in the next step.

See question 1.

(8) एकादशन् । By 7-1-22 षड्भ्यो लुक् – The affixes ‘जस्’ and ‘शस्’ take the लुक् elision when they follow terms that are designated षट्।
Note: Now ‘एकादशन्’ gets the designation पदम् by 1-4-14 सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् with the help of 1-1-62 प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्। This allows the सूत्रम् 8-2-7 to apply in the next step.

(9) एकादश । By 8-2-7 नलोपः प्रातिपदिकान्तस्य – The ending letter ‘न्’ of a पदम् is dropped when the पदम् also has the designation प्रातिपदिकम्।

Questions:

1. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a second case affix (‘शस्’) in the above example?

2. Can you spot the affix ‘सन्’ in the verses?

3. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in the place of ‘लँट्’) been used?

4. Where has the सूत्रम् 1-4-25 भीत्रार्थानां भयहेतुः been used in the verses?

5. In which sense has a third case affix been used in the form पित्रा in the verses?
i) कर्तरि
ii) करणे
iii) हेतौ
iv) None of the above.

6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
“Among the eleven Rudras, Śaṅkara is the most worshiped.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पूजिततम’ for ‘most worshiped.’

Easy questions:

1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-113 हलि लोपः been used in the verses?

2. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः apply in the form कथयति (used in the commentary)?


1 Comment

  1. 1. Which सूत्रम् justifies the use of a second case affix (‘शस्’) in the above example?
    Answer: The use of a second case affix (‘शस्’) in the form समाः (स्त्रीलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘समा’, द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) and the corresponding adjective एकादश (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘एकादशन्’, स्त्रीलिङ्गे द्वितीया-बहुवचनम्) is justified by the सूत्रम् 2-3-5 कालाध्वनोरत्यन्तसंयोगे – A second case affix (‘अम्’, ‘औट्’, ‘शस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) denoting (measure of) time or (measure of) path/road when continuous connection (with a quality or action or thing) is meant.

    Note: In the present example, एकादश समाः (eleven years) denotes a measure of time which has continuous connection with the action of living denoted by the the verbal root √वस् (वसँ निवासे १. ११६०) present in the word अवसत्।

    2. Can you spot the affix ‘सन्’ in the verses?
    Answer: The affix ‘सन्’ occurs in the form चिकीर्षुः (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘चिकीर्षु’, पुंलिङ्गे प्रथमा-एकवचनम्)।

    Please see the following post for derivation of the form चिकीर्षुः – http://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/06/27/चिकीर्षुः-mns/

    3. In which word in the verses has the substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in the place of ‘लँट्’) been used?
    Answer: The substitution ‘शतृँ’ (in the place of ‘लँट्’) has been used in the form विबिभ्यता (प्रातिपदिकम् ‘विबिभ्यत्’, पुंलिङ्गे तृतीया-एकवचनम्) – derived from the verbal root √भी (ञिभी भये ३. २).

    भी + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्।
    = भी + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = भी + शतृँ । By 3-2-124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे – The affix ‘लँट्’ is replaced by ‘शतृँ’/’शानच्’ as long as the derived word is in agreement with (has the same reference as) a word which ends in a nominal ending other than the nominative.
    Note: Since the verbal root √भी is devoid of any indications for bringing in a आत्मनेपदम् affix, it takes a परस्मैपदम् affix as per 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्। As per 1-4-99 लः परस्मैपदम्, ‘शतृँ’ has the परस्मैपद-सञ्ज्ञा while as per 1-4-100 तङानावात्मनेपदम्, ‘शानच्’ has the आत्मनेपद-सञ्ज्ञा। Therefore the verbal root √भी takes the affix ‘शतृँ’ (and not ‘शानच्’) here.
    = भी + अत् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = भी + शप् + अत् । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्।
    = भी + अत् । By 2-4-75 जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः।
    = भी + भी + अत् । By 6-1-10 श्लौ।
    = भि + भी + अत् । By 7-4-59 ह्रस्वः।
    Note: Since the सार्वधातुकम् affix ‘शतृँ’ (‘अत्’) is अपित् (does not have the letter ‘प्’ as a इत्), by 1-2-4 सार्वधातुकमपित् it behaves ङिद्वत् – as if it has the letter ‘ङ्’ as a इत्। Therefore 1-1-5 क्क्ङिति च prevents 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः from applying here.
    = भिभ्य् + अत् । By 6-4-82 एरनेकाचोऽसंयोगपूर्वस्य।
    = बिभ्यत् । By 8-4-54 अभ्यासे चर्च्, 1-1-50 स्थानेऽन्तरतमः।

    वि + बिभ्यत् । ‘बिभ्यत्’ is compounded with the उपसर्गः ‘वि’ using the सूत्रम् 2-2-18 कुगतिप्रादयः।
    = विबिभ्यत् ।
    Note: ‘विबिभ्यत्’ gets the designation प्रातिपदिकम्‌ by 1-2-46 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च।

    4. Where has the सूत्रम् 1-4-25 भीत्रार्थानां भयहेतुः been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 1-4-25 भीत्रार्थानां भयहेतुः has been used to give the designation अपादानम् to कंसः, who is the cause of fear in पिता (वसुदेवः)। (Hence the प्रातिपदिकम् ‘कंस’ takes a fifth case affix by the सूत्रम् 2-3-28 अपादाने पञ्चमी to give the form कंसात्।)

    As per the सूत्रम् 1-4-25 भीत्रार्थानां भयहेतुः – When a verbal root having the meaning of भयम् (fear) or त्राणम् (protection) is used, the कारकम् (participant in the action) which denotes the cause of the fear is designated as अपादानम्।
    Note: The सूत्रम् 1-4-25 applies in the present example because of the presence of the verbal root √भी (ञिभी भये ३. २) – meaning ‘fear’ – in the form विबिभ्यता।

    5. In which sense has a third case affix been used in the form पित्रा in the verses?
    i) कर्तरि
    ii) करणे
    iii) हेतौ
    iv) None of the above.
    Answer: The third case affix in the form पित्रा (पुंलिङ्ग-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पितृ’, तृतीया-एकवचनम्) has been used in the sense हेतौ as per the सूत्रम् 2-3-23 हेतौ – A third case affix (‘टा’, ‘भ्याम्’, ‘भिस्’) is used following a प्रातिपदिकम् (nominal stem) which denotes a cause/reason (for a thing or quality or action.)
    The use of the सूत्रम् 2-3-23 हेतौ is justified here since पित्रा (on account of His father) is the cause/reason for the action of going expressed by the form (नन्दव्रजम्) इतः – went (to Nanda’s Vraja.)

    6. How would you say this in Sanskrit?
    “Among the eleven Rudras, Śaṅkara is the most worshiped.” Use the adjective प्रातिपदिकम् ‘पूजिततम’ for ‘most worshiped.’
    Answer: एकदशानाम् रुद्राणाम् (मध्ये) शङ्करः पूजिततमः (अस्ति) = एकदशानां रुद्राणां शङ्करः पूजिततमः।

    Easy questions:
    1. Where has the सूत्रम् 7-2-113 हलि लोपः been used in the verses?
    Answer: The सूत्रम् 7-2-113 हलि लोपः has been used in the form अस्याः (सर्वनाम-प्रातिपदिकम् ‘इदम्’, स्त्रीलिङ्गे षष्ठी-एकवचनम्)।

    Please see answer to easy question 1 in the following comment for derivation of the form अस्याः – https://avg-sanskrit.org/2012/02/15/हन्ता-3as-लुँट्/#comment-3297

    2. Why doesn’t the सूत्रम् 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः apply in the form कथयति (used in the commentary)?
    Answer: The form कथयति is derived from the verbal root √कथ (कथ वाक्यप्रबन्धे (वाक्यप्रबन्धने) १०. ३८९) as follows –

    The ending letter ‘अ’ of ‘कथ’ is not a अनुनासिक: (nasal) letter and hence does not get the इत्-सञ्ज्ञा by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्।
    कथ + णिच् । By 3-1-25 सत्यापपाशरूपवीणातूलश्लोकसेनालोमत्वचवर्मवर्णचूर्णचुरादिभ्यो णिच्। ‘णिच्’ gets आर्धधातुक-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-4-114 आर्धधातुकं शेषः।
    = कथ् + णिच् । By 6-4-48 अतो लोपः। Note: As per 7-2-116 अत उपधायाः, the affix णिच् would do a वृद्धि: substitution in place of the letter ‘अ’ of the अङ्गम् ‘कथ्’। But this does not happen because as per 1-1-57 अचः परस्मिन् पूर्वविधौ, the लोप: done by 6-4-48 has स्थानिवद्-भाव: (it behaves like the item it replaced – the letter ‘अ’) when it comes to an operation (वृद्धि:) that would be performed to the left of it. Hence as far as 7-2-116 is concerned, the उपधा of the अङ्गम् is the letter ‘थ्’ and hence it cannot apply.
    = कथ् + इ । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-7 चुटू, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = कथि । ‘कथि’ gets धातु-सञ्ज्ञा by 3-1-32 सनाद्यन्ता धातवः।

    The विवक्षा is लँट्, कर्तरि प्रयोगः, प्रथम-पुरुषः, एकवचनम्।
    कथि + लँट् । By 3-2-123 वर्तमाने लट्।
    = कथि + ल् । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-2 उपदेशेऽजनुनासिक इत्, 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = कथि + तिप् । By 3-4-78 तिप्तस्झिसिप्थस्थमिब्वस्मस्तातांझथासाथांध्वमिड्वहिमहिङ्, 1-3-78 शेषात् कर्तरि परस्मैपदम्।
    = कथि + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = कथि + शप् + ति । By 3-1-68 कर्तरि शप्‌।
    = कथि + अ + ति । अनुबन्ध-लोपः by 1-3-3 हलन्त्यम्, 1-3-8 लशक्वतद्धिते and 1-3-9 तस्य लोपः।
    = कथे + अ + ति । By 7-3-84 सार्वधातुकार्धधातुकयोः।
    = कथय + ति । By 6-1-78 एचोऽयवायावः।
    = कथयति ।

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